Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Enzyme Research
Volume 2011, Article ID 787532, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/787532
Review Article

Chemical and Physicochemical Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

1Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL 32312, USA
2Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai 600036, India

Received 26 December 2010; Accepted 18 March 2011

Academic Editor: Praveen Vadlani

Copyright © 2011 Gary Brodeur et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. “Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol: A joint Research Agenda,” Department of Energy, SC-0095. 2005.
  2. M. A. Delucci, Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity, Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Ill, USA, 1991.
  3. L. R. Lynd, J. H. Cushman, R. J. Nichols, and C. E. Wyman, “Fuel ethanol from cellulosic biomass,” Science, vol. 251, no. 4999, pp. 1318–1323, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Demirbas, “Biofuels securing the planet's future energy needs,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 2239–2249, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. T. Merino and J. Cherry, “Progress and challenges in enzyme development for biomass utilization,” Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology, vol. 108, pp. 95–120, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Leber, “Economics improve for first commercial cellulosic ethanol plants,” New York Times, February 2010. View at Google Scholar
  7. L. R. Lynd, W. H. Van Zyl, J. E. McBride, and M. Laser, “Consolidated bioprocessing of cellulosic biomass: an update,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 577–583, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. R. Lynd, P. J. Weimer, W. H. Van Zyl, and I. S. Pretorius, “Microbial cellulose utilization: fundamentals and biotechnology,” Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 506–577, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. B. Yang and C. E. Wyman, “Pretreatment: the key to unlocking low-cost cellulosic ethanol,” Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 26–40, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. E. Himmel, S.-Y. Ding, D. K. Johnson et al., “Biomass recalcitrance: engineering plants and enzymes for biofuels production,” Science, vol. 315, no. 5813, pp. 804–807, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. H. Palonen, F. Tjerneld, G. Zacchi, and M. Tenkanen, “Adsorption of Trichoderma reesei CBH I and EG II and their catalytic domains on steam pretreated softwood and isolated lignin,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 65–72, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. N. Mosier, C. Wyman, B. Dale et al., “Features of promising technologies for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 673–686, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. A. Patel, M. S. Ou, L. O. Ingram, and K. T. Shanmugam, “Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of crystalline cellulose and sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate to lactate by a thermotolerant acidophilic Bacillus sp,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 1453–1460, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. R. South, D. A. Hogsett, and L. R. Lynd, “Continuous fermentation of cellulosic biomass to ethanol,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 39-40, no. 1, pp. 587–600, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. E. Wyman, “Biomass ethanol: technical progress, opportunities, and commercial challenges,” Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, vol. 24, pp. 189–226, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. E. Wyman, B. E. Dale, R. T. Elander, M. Holtzapple, M. R. Ladisch, and Y. Y. Lee, “Coordinated development of leading biomass pretreatment technologies,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 96, no. 18, pp. 1959–1966, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. A. Patel, M. S. Ou, R. Harbrucker et al., “Isolation and characterization of acid-tolerant, thermophilic bacteria for effective fermentation of biomass-derived sugars to lactic acid,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 3228–3235, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. R. South, D. A. L. Hogsett, and L. R. Lynd, “Modeling simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of lignocellulose to ethanol in batch and continuous reactors,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 797–803, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. YE. Sun and J. Cheng, “Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. S. Ou, N. Mohammed, L. O. Ingram, and K. T. Shanmugam, “Thermophilic bacillus coagulans requires less cellulases for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to products than mesophilic microbial biocatalysts,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 155, no. 1–3, pp. 379–385, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. Kumar and C. E. Wyman, “Effects of cellulase and xylanase enzymes on the deconstruction of solids from pretreatment of poplar by leading technologies,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 302–314, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. Sánchez, “Lignocellulosic residues: biodegradation and bioconversion by fungi,” Biotechnology Advances, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 185–194, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Shi, M. S. Chinn, and R. R. Sharma-Shivappa, “Microbial pretreatment of cotton stalks by solid state cultivation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, no. 14, pp. 6556–6564, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Ó. J. Sánchez and C. A. Cardona, “Trends in biotechnological production of fuel ethanol from different feedstocks,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, no. 13, pp. 5270–5295, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Y. S. Cheng, Y. Zheng, C. W. Yu, T. M. Dooley, B. M. Jenkins, and J. S. VanderGheynst, “Evaluation of high solids alkaline pretreatment of rice straw,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 162, no. 6, pp. 1768–1784, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. M. Ibrahim, W. K. El-Zawawy, Y. R. Abdel-Fattah, N. A. Soliman, and F. A. Agblevor, “Comparison of alkaline pulping with steam explosion for glucose production from rice straw,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 720–726, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. S. McIntosh and T. Vancov, “Enhanced enzyme saccharification of Sorghum bicolor straw using dilute alkali pretreatment,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 17, pp. 6718–6727, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. L. Sills and J. M. Gossett, “Assessment of commercial hemicellulases for saccharification of alkaline pretreated perennial biomass,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 1389–1398, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. D. G. MacDonald, N. Bakhshi, J. F. Mathews, A. Roychowdhury, P. Bajpai, and M. Moo-Young, “Alkaline treatment of corn stover to improve sugar production by enzymatic hydrolysis,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 2067–2076, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. L. Soto, H. Dominguez, M. J. Nunez, and J. M. Lema, “Enzymatic saccharification of alkali-treated sunflower hulls,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 53–59, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Y. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Y. Zhu, A. Ragauskas, and Y. Deng, “Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of spruce by alkaline pretreatment at low temperature,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 99, no. 6, pp. 1320–1328, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Zhu, C. Wan, and Y. Li, “Enhanced solid-state anaerobic digestion of corn stover by alkaline pretreatment,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 19, pp. 7523–7528, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. Y. Liang, T. Siddaramu, J. Yesuf, and N. Sarkany, “Fermentable sugar release from Jatropha seed cakes following lime pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 16, pp. 6417–6424, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. Y. Park, R. Shiroma, M. I. Al-Haq et al., “A novel lime pretreatment for subsequent bioethanol production from rice straw—calcium capturing by carbonation (CaCCO) process,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 17, pp. 6805–6811, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. T. W. M. Hendriks and G. Zeeman, “Pretreatments to enhance the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 10–18, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. Z. Hu, Y. Wang, and Z. Wen, “Alkali (NaOH) pretreatment of switchgrass by radio frequency-based dielectric heating,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 148, no. 1-3, pp. 71–81, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R. Sun, J. M. Lawther, and W. B. Banks, “Influence of alkaline pre-treatments on the cell wall components of wheat straw,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 127–145, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. C. Rabelo, R. M. Filho, and A. C. Costa, “Lime pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for bioethanol production,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 153, no. 1–3, pp. 139–150, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. C. Martín, H. B. Klinke, and A. B. Thomsen, “Wet oxidation as a pretreatment method for enhancing the enzymatic convertibility of sugarcane bagasse,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 426–432, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. B. Bjerre, A. B. Olesen, T. Fernqvist, A. Plöger, and A. S. Schmidt, “Pretreatment of wheat straw using combined wet oxidation and alkaline hydrolysis resulting in convertible cellulose and hemicellulose,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 568–577, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. Martín, M. Marcet, and A. B. Thomsen, “Comparison between wet oxidation and steam explosion as pretreatment methods for enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse,” BioResources, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 670–683, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. Pedersen and A. S. Meyer, “Influence of substrate particle size and wet oxidation on physical surface structures and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 399–408, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. Banerjee, R. Sen, R. A. Pandey et al., “Evaluation of wet air oxidation as a pretreatment strategy for bioethanol production from rice husk and process optimization,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1680–1686, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. Ruffell, B. Levie, S. Helle, and S. Duff, “Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of recovered fibre for ethanol production,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 7, pp. 2267–2272, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. N. Szijártó, Z. Kádár, E. Varga, A. B. Thomsen, M. Costa-Ferreira, and K. Réczey, “Pretreatment of reed by wet oxidation and subsequent utilization of the pretreated fibers for ethanol production,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 155, no. 1–3, pp. 386–396, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. C. Martín and A. B. Thomsen, “Wet oxidation pretreatment of lignocellulosic residues of sugarcane, rice, cassava and peanuts for ethanol production,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 174–181, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. S. Schmidt, S. Mallon, A. B. Thomsen, S. Hvilsted, and J. M. Lawther, “Comparison of the chemical properties of wheat straw and beech fibers following alkaline wet oxidation and laccase treatments,” Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 39–53, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. L. Ping, N. Brosse, P. Sannigrahi, and A. Ragauskas, “Evaluation of grape stalks as a bioresource,” Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 200–204, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. G. Lissens, H. Klinke, W. Verstraete, B. Ahring, and A. B. Thomsen, “Wet oxidation pre-treatment of woody yard waste: parameter optimization and enzymatic digestibility for ethanol production,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 79, no. 8, pp. 889–895, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. Sørensen, P. J. Teller, T. Hilstrøm, and B. K. Ahring, “Hydrolysis of Miscanthus for bioethanol production using dilute acid presoaking combined with wet explosion pre-treatment and enzymatic treatment,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, no. 14, pp. 6602–6607, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. T. I. Georgieva, X. Hou, T. Hilstrøm, and B. K. Ahring, “Enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of high dry matter wet-exploded wheat straw at low enzyme loading,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 148, no. 1–3, pp. 35–44, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. T. I. Georgieva, M. J. Mikkelsen, and B. K. Ahring, “Ethanol production from wet-exploded wheat straw hydrolysate by thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1 in a continuous immobilized reactor,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 145, no. 1–3, pp. 99–110, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. C. Martín, Y. González, T. Fernández, and A. B. Thomsen, “Investigation of cellulose convertibility and ethanolic fermentation of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by wet oxidation and steam explosion,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 81, no. 10, pp. 1669–1677, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. M. F. Digman, K. J. Shinners, M. D. Casler et al., “Optimizing on-farm pretreatment of perennial grasses for fuel ethanol production,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 14, pp. 5305–5314, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. C. Li, B. Knierim, C. Manisseri et al., “Comparison of dilute acid and ionic liquid pretreatment of switchgrass: biomass recalcitrance, delignification and enzymatic saccharification,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 13, pp. 4900–4906, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. B. Du, L. N. Sharma, C. Becker et al., “Effect of varying feedstock-pretreatment chemistry combinations on the formation and accumulation of potentially inhibitory degradation products in biomass hydrolysates,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 430–440, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. J. Xu, M. H. Thomsen, and A. B. Thomsen, “Pretreatment on corn stover with low concentration of formic acid,” Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 845–850, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. L. Shuai, Q. Yang, J. Y. Zhu et al., “Comparative study of SPORL and dilute-acid pretreatments of spruce for cellulosic ethanol production,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 9, pp. 3106–3114, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. C. E. Wyman, B. E. Dale, R. T. Elander et al., “Comparative sugar recovery and fermentation data following pretreatment of poplar wood by leading technologies,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 333–339, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. R. Kumar and C. E. Wyman, “Access of cellulase to cellulose and lignin for poplar solids produced by leading pretreatment technologies,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 807–819, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. K. J. Zeitsch, The Chemistry and Technology of Furfural and Its Many By-Products, vol. 13 of Sugar Series, Elsevier Science, New York, NY, USA, 2000.
  62. H. Wang, J. Wang, Z. Fang, X. Wang, and H. Bu, “Enhanced bio-hydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation of apple pomace with enzyme hydrolysis,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 35, no. 15, pp. 8303–8309, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. Y. H. P. Zhang, S. Y. Ding, J. R. Mielenz et al., “Fractionating recalcitrant lignocellulose at modest reaction conditions,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 214–223, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. T. Marzialetti, M. B. V. Olarte, C. Sievers, T. J. C. Hoskins, P. K. Agrawal, and C. W. Jones, “Dilute acid hydrolysis of loblolly pine: a comprehensive approach,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 47, no. 19, pp. 7131–7140, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. E. Himmel, W. S. Adney, J. O. Baker et al., “Advanced bioethanol production technologies: a perspective,” Fuels and Chemicals from Biomass, vol. 666, pp. 2–45, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  66. B. C. Saha, L. B. Iten, M. A. Cotta, and Y. V. Wu, “Dilute acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and fermentation of rice hulls to ethanol,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 816–822, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. A. Esteghlalian, A. G. Hashimoto, J. J. Fenske, and M. H. Penner, “Modeling and optimization of the dilute-sulfuric-acid pretreatment of corn stover, poplar and switchgrass,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 59, no. 2-3, pp. 129–136, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. Q. A. Nguyen, M. P. Tucker, F. A. Keller, and F. P. Eddy, “Two-stage dilute-acid pretreatment of softwoods,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Part A, vol. 84–86, pp. 561–576, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. P. Sassner, C. G. Mårtensson, M. Galbe, and G. Zacchi, “Steam pretreatment of H2SO4-impregnated Salix for the production of bioethanol,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 137–145, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. YE. Sun and J. J. Cheng, “Dilute acid pretreatment of rye straw and bermudagrass for ethanol production,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 96, no. 14, pp. 1599–1606, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. B. C. Saha, L. B. Iten, M. A. Cotta, and Y. V. Wu, “Dilute acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of wheat straw to ethanol,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 3693–3700, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. R. A. Silverstein, Y. Chen, R. R. Sharma-Shivappa, M. D. Boyette, and J. Osborne, “A comparison of chemical pretreatment methods for improving saccharification of cotton stalks,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 98, no. 16, pp. 3000–3011, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. P. Kumar, D. M. Barrett, M. J. Delwiche, and P. Stroeve, “Methods for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for efficient hydrolysis and biofuel production,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 3713–3729, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. L. da Costa Sousa, S. P. Chundawat, V. Balan, and B. E. Dale, “‘Cradle-to-grave’ assessment of existing lignocellulose pretreatment technologies,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 339–347, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. E. Carrasco, MA. C. Sáiz, A. Navarro, P. Soriano, F. Sáez, and J. M. Martinez, “Effects of dilute acid and steam explosion pretreatments on the cellulose structure and kinetics of cellulosic fraction hydrolysis by dilute acids in lignocellulosic materials,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 45-46, no. 1, pp. 23–34, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. T. A. Lloyd and C. E. Wyman, “Combined sugar yields for dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the remaining solids,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 96, no. 18, pp. 1967–1977, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. N. Sun, H. Rodríguez, M. Rahman, and R. D. Rogers, “Where are ionic liquid strategies most suited in the pursuit of chemicals and energy from lignocellulosic biomass?” Chemical Communications, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1405–1421, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. Y. Cao, H. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, and J. He, “Structure and properties of novel regenerated cellulose films prepared from cornhusk cellulose in room temperature ionic liquids,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 116, no. 1, pp. 547–554, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. H. Zhao, C. L. Jones, G. A. Baker, S. Xia, O. Olubajo, and V. N. Person, “Regenerating cellulose from ionic liquids for an accelerated enzymatic hydrolysis,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 139, no. 1, pp. 47–54, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. Z. M. Wang, L. Li, K. J. Xiao, and J. Y. Wu, “Homogeneous sulfation of bagasse cellulose in an ionic liquid and anticoagulation activity,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 1687–1690, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. I. P. Samayam and C. A. Schall, “Saccharification of ionic liquid pretreated biomass with commercial enzyme mixtures,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 10, pp. 3561–3566, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. Q. Li, Y. C. He, M. Xian et al., “Improving enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw using ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium diethyl phosphate pretreatment,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 100, no. 14, pp. 3570–3575, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. D. A. Fort, R. C. Remsing, R. P. Swatloski, P. Moyna, G. Moyna, and R. D. Rogers, “Can ionic liquids dissolve wood? Processing and analysis of lignocellulosic materials with 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride,” Green Chemistry, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 63–69, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. S. Zhu, Y. Wu, Q. Chen et al., “Dissolution of cellulose with ionic liquids and its application: a mini-review,” Green Chemistry, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 325–327, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. A. P. Dadi, C. A. Schall, and S. Varanasi, “Mitigation of cellulose recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis by ionic liquid pretreatment,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 137–140, no. 1–12, pp. 407–421, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. A. P. Dadi, S. Varanasi, and C. A. Schall, “Enhancement of cellulose saccharification kinetics using an ionic liquid pretreatment step,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 904–910, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. M. Zavrel, D. Bross, M. Funke, J. Büchs, and A. C. Spiess, “High-throughput screening for ionic liquids dissolving (ligno-)cellulose,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 100, no. 9, pp. 2580–2587, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. T. A. D. Nguyen, K. R. Kim, SE. J. Han et al., “Pretreatment of rice straw with ammonia and ionic liquid for lignocellulose conversion to fermentable sugars,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 19, pp. 7432–7438, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. S. Ramakrishnan, J. Collier, R. Oyetunji, B. Stutts, and R. Burnett, “Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose dissolved in N-methyl morpholine oxide/water solutions,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 13, pp. 4965–4970, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. M. B. Turner, S. K. Spear, J. G. Huddleston, J. D. Holbrey, and R. D. Rogers, “Ionic liquid salt-induced inactivation and unfolding of cellulase from Trichoderma reesei,” Green Chemistry, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 443–447, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. C. H. Kuo and C. K. Lee, “Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide pretreatment,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 866–871, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. C. H. Kuo and C. K. Lee, “Enhancement of enzymatic saccharification of cellulose by cellulose dissolution pretreatments,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 41–46, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. M. Shafiei, K. Karimi, and M. J. Taherzadeh, “Pretreatment of spruce and oak by N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) for efficient conversion of their cellulose to ethanol,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 13, pp. 4914–4918, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. K. E. Perepelkin, “Lyocell fibres based on direct dissolution of cellulose in N-methylmorpholine N-oxide: development and prospects,” Fibre Chemistry, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 163–172, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. T. Rosenau, A. Potthast, H. Sixta, and P. Kosma, “The chemistry of side reactions and byproduct formation in the system NMMO/cellulose (Lyocell process),” Progress in Polymer Science (Oxford), vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1763–1837, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. N. Kamiya, Y. Matsushita, M. Hanaki et al., “Enzymatic in situ saccharification of cellulose in aqueous-ionic liquid media,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1037–1040, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. S. H. Lee, T. V. Doherty, R. J. Linhardt, and J. S. Dordick, “Ionic liquid-mediated selective extraction of lignin from wood leading to enhanced enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 102, no. 5, pp. 1368–1376, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. I. Ballesteros, J. M. Oliva, M. J. Negro, P. Manzanares, and M. Ballesteros, “Enzymic hydrolysis of steam exploded herbaceous agricultural waste (Brassica carinata) at different particule sizes,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 187–192, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. S. J. B. Duff and W. D. Murray, “Bioconversion of forest products industry waste cellulosics to fuel ethanol: a review,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 1–33, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. E. Viola, M. Cardinale, R. Santarcangelo, A. Villone, and F. Zimbardi, “Ethanol from eel grass via steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 613–618, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. C. Tengborg, K. Stenberg, M. Galbe et al., “Comparison of SO2 and H2SO4 impregnation of softwood prior to steam pretreatment on ethanol production,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Part A, vol. 70–72, pp. 3–15, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. J. Söderström, L. Pilcher, M. Galbe, and G. Zacchi, “Two-step steam pretreatment of softwood with SO2 impregnation for ethanol production,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Part A, vol. 98–100, pp. 5–21, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. I. Ballesteros, MA. J. Negro, J. M. Oliva, A. Cabañas, P. Manzanares, and M. Ballesteros, “Ethanol production from steam-explosion pretreated wheat straw,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 130, no. 1–3, pp. 496–508, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. E. Chornet, C. Vanasse, J. P. Lemonnier, and R. P. Overend, “Preparation and processing of medium and high consistency biomass suspensions,” Research in Thermochemical Biomass Conversion, pp. 766–778, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  105. F. Carrasco, “Principles of biomass fractionation,” Afinidad, vol. 46, no. 423, pp. 425–429, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  106. B. Focher, A. Marzett, and V. Crescenzi, Eds., Steam Explosion Techniques, Fundamentals and Industrial Applications, Gordon and Breach, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1991.
  107. R. Wooley, M. Ruth, J. Sheehan, and K. Ibsen, “Lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol process design and economics utilizing co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis: current and futuristic scenarios,” NREL Report, vol. TP-580-26157, p. 130, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  108. W. R. Grous, A. O. Converse, and H. E. Grethlein, “Effect of steam explosion pretreatment on pore size and enzymatic hydrolysis of poplar,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 274–280, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. C. Cara, E. Ruiz, I. Ballesteros, M. J. Negro, and E. Castro, “Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of olive tree wood by steam explosion and alkaline peroxide delignification,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 423–429, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. E. Varga, K. Réczey, and G. Zacchi, “Optimization of steam pretreatment of corn stover to enhance enzymatic digestibility,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Part A, vol. 114, no. 1–3, pp. 509–523, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. M. R. Vignon, C. Garcia-Jaldon, and D. Dupeyre, “Steam explosion of woody hemp chenevotte,” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 395–404, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. C. Cara, E. Ruiz, J. M. Oliva, F. Sáez, and E. Castro, “Conversion of olive tree biomass into fermentable sugars by dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, no. 6, pp. 1869–1876, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. A. Boussaid, Y. Cai, J. Robinson, D. J. Gregg, Q. Nguyen, and J. N. Saddler, “Sugar recovery and fermentability of hemicellulose hydrolysates from steam-exploded softwoods containing bark,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 887–892, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. E. Palmqvist and B. Hahn-Hägerdal, “Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. II: inhibitors and mechanisms of inhibition,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 25–33, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. K. Wang, J.-X. Jiang, F. Xu, R.-C. Sun, and M. S. Baird, “Influence of steam pressure on the physicochemical properties of degraded hemicelluloses obtained from steam-exploded Lespedeza stalks,” BioResources, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1717–1732, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  116. X. F. Sun, F. Xu, R. C. Sun, Z. C. Geng, P. Fowler, and M. S. Baird, “Characteristics of degraded hemicellulosic polymers obtained from steam exploded wheat straw,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 15–26, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. G. Yu, S. Yano, H. Inoue, S. Inoue, T. Endo, and S. Sawayama, “Pretreatment of rice straw by a hot-compressed water process for enzymatic hydrolysis,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 160, no. 2, pp. 539–551, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. N. Kobayashi, N. Okada, A. Hirakawa et al., “Characteristics of solid residues obtained from hot-compressed-water treatment of woody biomass,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 373–379, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. T. Ingram, T. Rogalinski, V. Bockemühl, G. Antranikian, and G. Brunner, “Semi-continuous liquid hot water pretreatment of rye straw,” Journal of Supercritical Fluids, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 238–246, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. Q. Yu, X. Zhuang, Z. Yuan et al., “Two-step liquid hot water pretreatment of Eucalyptus grandis to enhance sugar recovery and enzymatic digestibility of cellulose,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 13, pp. 4895–4899, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. Y. Kim, N. S. Mosier, and M. R. Ladisch, “Enzymatic digestion of liquid hot water pretreated hybrid poplar,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 340–348, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. J. A. Pérez, I. Ballesteros, M. Ballesteros, F. Sáez, M. J. Negro, and P. Manzanares, “Optimizing Liquid Hot Water pretreatment conditions to enhance sugar recovery from wheat straw for fuel-ethanol production,” Fuel, vol. 87, no. 17-18, pp. 3640–3647, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. H. Alizadeh, F. Teymouri, T. I. Gilbert, and B. E. Dale, “Pretreatment of switchgrass by ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX),” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Part A, vol. 124, no. 1–3, pp. 1133–1141, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. F. Teymouri, L. Laureano-Pérez, H. Alizadeh, and B. E. Dale, “Ammonia fiber explosion treatment of corn stover,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Part A, vol. 115, no. 1–3, pp. 951–963, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. S. P. S. Chundawat, B. Venkatesh, and B. E. Dale, “Effect of particle size based separation of milled corn stover on AFEX pretreatment and enzymatic digestibility,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 219–231, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. F. Carvalheiro, L. C. Duarte, and F. M. Gírio, “Hemicellulose biorefineries: a review on biomass pretreatments,” Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 849–864, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. L. Lin, R. Yan, Y. Liu, and W. Jiang, “In-depth investigation of enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass wastes based on three major components: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 21, pp. 8217–8223, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  128. T. H. Kim, Y. Y. Lee, C. Sunwoo, and S. K. Jun, “Pretreatment of corn stover by low-liquid ammonia recycle percolation process,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 41–57, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. T. H. Kim and Y. Y. Lee, “Pretreatment and fractionation of corn stover by ammonia recycle percolation process,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 96, no. 18, pp. 2007–2013, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. P. V. Iyer, Z. W. Wu, S. B. Kim, and Y. Y. Lee, “Ammonia recycled percolation process for pretreatment of herbaceous biomass,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Part A, vol. 57-58, pp. 121–132, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. M. Mes-Hartree, B. E. Dale, and W. K. Craig, “Comparison of steam and ammonia pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 462–468, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. J. McHardy and S. P. Sawan, Supercritical Fluid Cleaning: Fundamentals, Technology and Applications, Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, NJ, USA, 1998.
  133. J. W. King and K. Srinivas, “Multiple unit processing using sub- and supercritical fluids,” Journal of Supercritical Fluids, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 598–610, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. C. Schacht, C. Zetzl, and G. Brunner, “From plant materials to ethanol by means of supercritical fluid technology,” Journal of Supercritical Fluids, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 299–321, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. K. H. Kim and J. Hong, “Supercritical CO2 pretreatment of lignocellulose enhances enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 139–144, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. R. Alinia, S. Zabihi, F. Esmaeilzadeh, and J. F. Kalajahi, “Pretreatment of wheat straw by supercritical CO2 and its enzymatic hydrolysis for sugar production,” Biosystems Engineering, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 61–66, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  137. J. S. Luterbacher, J. W. Tester, and L. P. Walker, “High-solids biphasic CO2-H2O pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 451–460, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  138. T. Eggeman and R. T. Elander, “Process and economic analysis of pretreatment technologies,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 96, no. 18, pp. 2019–2025, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. E. Sendich, M. Laser, S. Kim et al., “Recent process improvements for the ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) process and resulting reductions in minimum ethanol selling price,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, no. 17, pp. 8429–8435, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. E. D. Sendich and B. E. Dale, “Environmental and economic analysis of the fully integrated biorefinery,” Global Change Biology Bioenergy, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 331–345, 2009. View at Google Scholar