Table 5: Physicochemical properties of selected pullulan-hydrolyzing enzymes from various microorganisms.

Organism 𝑀 𝑟 a (kDa)
pIOptimal  pHOptimal temperature (°C)Reference

Type I pullulanase
Bacillus flavocaldarius KP 122855n.d.b7.075–80[51]
Streptomyces sp. No. 27n.d.n.d.4–755–60[52]
Thermus caldophilus GK-24656.15.575[27]
Fervidobacterium pennavorans Ven 5240n.d.6.085[28]
Bacillus thermoleovorans US 105 (expressed in E. coli) n.d.n.d.5.6–6.075[30]
Type II pullulanase
Thermoanaerobacter strain B6A4504.55.075[53]
Clostridium thermosulfurigenes EM 1102n.d.5.5–6.060–65[54]
Pyrococcus furiosus 110n.d.5.598[55]
Thermococcus litoralis 119n.d.5.598[55]
Desulfurococcus mucosus n.d.n.d.5.0100[56]
Thermococcus celer n.d.n.d.5.590[56]
Thermococcus strain TYn.d.n.d.6.5100[56]
Pyrococcus woesei 90 n.d. 6.0 100 [26]
Thermococcus hydrothermalis 110–128n.d.5.595[14]
Desulfurococcus mucosus expressed in Bacillus subtilis 66n.d.5.085[32]
Neopullulanases
Bacillus stearothermophilus expressed in B. subtilis 62
n.d.
6.0
60–65
[42]
Bacillus stearothermophilus TRS 4062n.d.6.060–65 [42]
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron 95-170n.d.6.537[57]
Bacillus polymyxa CECT 155n.d.n.d.6.050[58]
Isopullulanases
Aspergillus niger ATCC 964269–71 n.d.3.540[36]
Bacillus sp. US 149 200n.d.5.060[31]
Alkaline amylopullulanase
Bacillus sp. KSM-18761205.210–10.5 50[59]
Bacillus sp. KSM 13782104.89.550[41]
Pullulan hydrolase type III
Thermococcus aggregans expressed in E. coli n.d.
n.d.
6.595[37]

aMolecular mass; bnot detected by the researchers.