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Enzyme Research
Volume 2015, Article ID 594656, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/594656
Review Article

Modulation of Aromatase by Phytoestrogens

Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology and The Neuroscience Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA

Received 1 October 2015; Revised 31 October 2015; Accepted 17 November 2015

Academic Editor: J. Paul G. Malthouse

Copyright © 2015 Edwin D. Lephart. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The aromatase enzyme catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens in many human tissues. Estrogens are known to stimulate cellular proliferation associated with certain cancers and protect against adverse symptoms during the peri- and postmenopausal intervals. Phytoestrogens are a group of plant derived naturally occurring compounds that have chemical structures similar to estrogen. Since phytoestrogens are known to be constituents of animal/human food sources, these compounds have received increased research attention. Phytoestrogens may contribute to decreased cancer risk by the inhibition of aromatase enzyme activity and CYP19 gene expression in human tissues. This review covers (a) the aromatase enzyme (historical descriptions on function, activity, and gene characteristics), (b) phytoestrogens in their classifications and applications to human health, and (c) a chronological coverage of aromatase activity modulated by phytoestrogens from the early 1980s to 2015. In general, phytoestrogens act as aromatase inhibitors by (a) decreasing aromatase gene expression, (b) inhibiting the aromatase enzyme itself, or (c) in some cases acting at both levels of regulation. The findings presented herein are consistent with estrogen’s impact on health and phytoestrogen’s potential as anticancer treatments, but well-controlled, large-scale studies are warranted to determine the effectiveness of phytoestrogens on breast cancer and age-related diseases.