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Enzyme Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 2682680, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2682680
Review Article

Immunomodulatory Effects of Chitotriosidase Enzyme

1Department of Pediatric Nephrology & Growth and Regeneration, University Hospitals Leuven, KU Leuven, UZ Herestraat 49, P.O. Box 817, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
2Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Inherited Metabolic Disease Laboratory, Center of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, 2 Ali Pasha Ibrahim Street, Room 409, Monira, P.O. Box 11628, Cairo, Egypt
3Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Radboud University Medical Center, Post 804, Postbus 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands

Received 30 September 2015; Accepted 16 December 2015

Academic Editor: Qi-Zhuang Ye

Copyright © 2016 Mohamed A. Elmonem et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Chitotriosidase enzyme (EC: 3.2.1.14) is the major active chitinase in the human body. It is produced mainly by activated macrophages, in which its expression is regulated by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic signals. Chitotriosidase was confirmed as essential element in the innate immunity against chitin containing organisms such as fungi and protozoa; however, its immunomodulatory effects extend far beyond innate immunity. In the current review, we will try to explore the expanding spectrum of immunological roles played by chitotriosidase enzyme in human health and disease and will discuss its up-to-date clinical value.