Table of Contents
Epidemiology Research International
Volume 2012, Article ID 387603, 6 pages
Research Article

Type and Toxicity of Pesticides Sold for Community Vector Control Use in the Gambia

1Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
2Department of Epidemiology, The University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40508, USA
3Division of Applied Research and Technology, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA
4University of The Gambia, Serrekunda, Gambia
5The Gambia National Environmental Agency, Banjul, Gambia

Received 30 November 2011; Accepted 5 March 2012

Academic Editor: Wolfgang Ahrens

Copyright © 2012 M. W. Murphy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objectives. The objective of this study was to identify the types of pesticides in circulation at local markets in The Gambia and to determine the proportion of products that were sold as unlabeled pesticides. Methods. One hundred twenty-eight samples sold as pesticides were collected from four local markets throughout The Gambia. Pesticides in the samples were identified by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Findings. Of the 128 samples collected, 115 were unlabeled. Pesticide components in 111 of those unlabeled samples were identified. Approximately 28% of these samples that contained pesticides are banned or restricted in the United States, and about 16% was classified as hazardous by WHO. Conclusions. Based on results for 128 samples, a significant percentage of the pesticide products sold at local markets in The Gambia in 2005 are considered extremely hazardous.