Table of Contents
Epidemiology Research International
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 481282, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/481282
Research Article

Community Level Disadvantage and the Likelihood of First Ischemic Stroke

1Division of Social Epidemiology, Department of Health Evidence and Policy, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
2Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
3Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
4Department of Neurology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
5Departments of Neurology, Epidemiology, Human Genetics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, FL 33136, USA
6Department of Biostatistics, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA

Received 13 April 2012; Revised 27 September 2012; Accepted 28 September 2012

Academic Editor: Demosthenes Panagiotakos

Copyright © 2012 Bernadette Boden-Albala et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Casper, S. Wing, and D. Strogatz, “Variation in the magnitude of black-white differences in stroke mortality by community occupational structure,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 302–306, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. J. Feldman, D. M. Makuc, J. C. Kleinman, and J. Cornoni-Huntley, “National trends in educational differentials in mortality,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 129, no. 5, pp. 919–933, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. Howard, M. Cushman, B. M. Kissela et al., “Traditional risk factors as the underlying cause of racial disparities in stroke: lessons from the half-full (empty?) glass,” Stroke, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 3369–3375, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. D. Jakovljević, C. Sarti, J. Sivenius et al., “Socioeconomic status and ischemic stroke: the FINMONICA stroke register,” Stroke, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1492–1498, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. A. Kaplan and J. E. Keil, “Socioeconomic factors and cardiovascular disease: a review of the literature,” Circulation, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 1973–1998, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. K. Kapral, H. Wang, M. Mamdani, and J. V. Tu, “Effect of socioeconomic status on treatment and mortality after stroke,” Stroke, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 268–273, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Kotler and D. L. Wingard, “The effect of occupational, marital and parental roles on mortality: the Alameda County study,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 79, no. 5, pp. 607–612, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. Pappas, S. Queen, W. Hadden, and G. Fisher, “The increasing disparity in mortality between socioeconomic groups in the United States, 1960 and 1986,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 329, no. 2, pp. 103–109, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. F. R. Artalejo, P. Guallar-Castillón, J. L. Gutiérrez-Fisac, J. R. Banegas, and J. Del Rey Calero, “Socioeconomic level, sedentary lifestyle, and wine consumption as possible explanations for geographic distribution of cerebrovascular disease mortality in Spain,” Stroke, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 922–928, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. E. Ross and J. Mirowsky, “Neighborhood disadvantage, disorder, and health,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 258–276, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. J. Sampson, “The neighborhood context of well-being,” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, vol. 46, supplement 3, pp. S53–S64, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. D. Sorlie, E. Backlund, and J. B. Keller, “US mortality by economic, demographic, and social characteristics: the National Longitudinal Mortality Study,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 85, no. 7, pp. 949–956, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. T. M. Van Rossum, H. Van De Mheen, M. M. B. Breteler, D. E. Grobbee, and J. P. Mackenbach, “Socioeconomic differences in stroke among Dutch elderly women: the Rotterdam Study,” Stroke, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 357–362, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. “United Hospital Fund,” New York City Community Health Atlas, 2002, https://www.census.gov/census2000/states/ny.htm.
  15. R. L. Sacco, B. Boden-Albala, R. Gan et al., “Stroke incidence among white, black, and Hispanic residents of an urban community: the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 147, no. 3, pp. 259–268, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. L. Sacco, M. Elkind, B. Boden-Albala et al., “The protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption on ischemic stroke,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 281, no. 1, pp. 53–60, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Federal Registrar, Race and Ethnic Standards For Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting, vol. 15, Washington, DC, USA, 1978.
  18. D. E. Kargman, R. L. Sacco, B. Boden-Albala, M. C. Paik, W. A. Hauser, and S. Shea, “Validity of telephone interview data for vascular disease risk factors in a racially mixed urban community: the northern Manhattan stroke study,” Neuroepidemiology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 174–184, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. L. Sacco, R. Gan, B. Boden-Albala et al., “Leisure-time physical activity and ischemic stroke risk: the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study,” Stroke, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 380–387, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. “United States Census Bureau,” The American Factfinder page, 2009, http://factfinder.census.gov/.
  21. D. C. Ompad, V. Nandi, M. Cerdá, N. Crawford, S. Galea, and D. Vlahov, “Beyond income: material resources among drug users in economically-disadvantaged New York City neighborhoods,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 120, no. 1–3, pp. 127–134, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. J. Sampson, S. W. Raudenbush, and F. Earls, “Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy,” Science, vol. 277, no. 5328, pp. 918–924, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. L. Casper, E. B. Barnett, D. L. Armstrong, W. H. Giles, and C. J. Blanton, “Social class and race disparities in premature stroke mortality among men in North Carolina,” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 146–153, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. B. Modan and D. K. Wagener, “Some epidemiological aspects of stroke: mortality/morbidity trends, age, sex, race, socioeconomic status,” Stroke, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 1230–1236, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. Fiscella and P. Franks, “Poverty or income inequality as predictor of mortality: longitudinal cohort study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 314, no. 7096, pp. 1724–1727, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. Gravelle, “How much of the relation between population mortality and unequal distribution of income is a statistical artefact?” British Medical Journal, vol. 316, no. 7128, pp. 382–385, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Howard, G. B. Russell, R. Anderson et al., “Role of social class in excess black stroke mortality,” Stroke, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1759–1763, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K. Lochner, E. Pamuk, D. Makuc, B. P. Kennedy, and I. Kawachi, “State-level income inequality and individual mortality risk: a prospective, multilevel study,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 385–391, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. L. D. Lisabeth, A. V. Diez Roux, J. D. Escobar, M. A. Smith, and L. B. Morgenstern, “Neighborhood environment and risk of ischemic stroke: the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 165, no. 3, pp. 279–287, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. M. Weden, R. M. Carpiano, and S. A. Robert, “Subjective and objective neighborhood characteristics and adult health,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 1256–1270, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. L. Ganz, “The relationship between external threats and smoking in Central Harlem,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 367–371, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. J. Paschall and M. L. Hubbard, “Effects of neighborhood and family stressors on African American male adolescents' self-worth and propensity for violent behavior,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 825–831, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. A. Laveist and J. M. Wallace, “Health risk and inequitable distribution of liquor stores in African American neighborhood,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 613–617, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. Macintyre, S. Maciver, and A. Sooman, “Area, class and health: should we be focusing on places or people?” Journal of Social Policy, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 213–234, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Shaw, D. Gordon, D. Dorling, R. Mitchell, and G. Davey Smith, “Increasing mortality differentials by residential area level of poverty: Britain 1981–1997,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 151–153, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Rundle, A. V. Diez Roux, L. M. Freeman, D. Miller, K. M. Neckerman, and C. C. Weiss, “The urban built environment and obesity in New York City: a multilevel analysis,” American Journal of Health Promotion, vol. 21, supplement 4, pp. 326–334, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. P. Yankelovich, “Survey of barriers to physical activity and healthy eating habits,” in Proceedings of the American Dietetic Association Conference, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1995.
  38. L. F. Berkman and L. Breslow, Health and Ways of Living: The Alameda County Study, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1983.
  39. D. Kim, A. V. Diez Roux, C. I. Kiefe, I. Kawachi, and K. Liu, “Do neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and low social cohesion predict coronary calcification? the CARDIA study,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 172, no. 3, pp. 288–298, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. E. T. Murray, A. V. Diez Roux, M. Carnethon, P. L. Lutsey, H. Ni, and E. S. O'Meara, “Trajectories of neighborhood poverty and associations with subclinical atherosclerosis and associated risk factors,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 171, no. 10, pp. 1099–1108, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus