Table of Contents
Epidemiology Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 9854062, 6 pages
Research Article

Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis in Public Primary School Children in Nigeria: Prevalence and Nomenclature

1University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar Children’s Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
2University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
3Department of Ophthalmology, AZ Sint-Maarten Hospital, Mechelen, Belgium

Received 18 March 2016; Accepted 21 June 2016

Academic Editor: Huibert Burger

Copyright © 2016 Roseline E. Duke et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. This study sought to add to the body of information on the prevalence and pattern of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) among school aged children in Cross River State, Nigeria. Method. A cross-sectional survey of children in public primary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria, was studied for VKC. Five schools were included, using a multistage sampling technique. Comprehensive eye examinations were conducted in one thousand two hundred and twenty-six (1226) school children. Main Outcome Measures/Results. The mean age of the population of 1226 school attending children was . The prevalence of VKC was 18.1% in this population study. The ratio of males to females is 1.8 : 1. The clinical grading of the 223 children with VKC is as follows: 43 (19.3%) quiescent, 134 (60.1%) mild, 44 (19.7%) moderate, and 2 (0.9%) severe VKC. The clinical types reported are as follows: limbal 67 (30.0%), tarsal 105 (47.1%), and mixed 51 (22.9%). The clinical types were used to describe a modified nomenclature. Conclusions. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis is a commonly occurring chronic condition and an important public health problem. A simple diagnostic nomenclature for describing VKC for primary health care workers is recommended.