Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Geofluids
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 2937105, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2937105
Research Article

A Double Scale Methodology to Investigate Flow in Karst Fractured Media via Numerical Analysis: The Cassino Plain Case Study (Central Apennine, Italy)

1Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, 03043 Cassino, Italy
2Department of Earth Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to M. Lancia; nc.ude.ctsus@aicnal

Received 20 June 2017; Revised 8 November 2017; Accepted 23 November 2017; Published 18 January 2018

Academic Editor: Mauro Cacace

Copyright © 2018 M. Lancia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. W. Huntoon, “Gradient Controlled Caves, Trapper‐Medicine Lodge Area, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming,” Groundwater, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 443–448, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. Galvão, T. Halihan, and R. Hirata, “The karst permeability scale effect of Sete Lagoas, MG, Brazil,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 532, pp. 149–162, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. Ford and P. Williams, Karst Hydrogeology and Geomorphology, Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. F. Boni, P. Bono, and G. Capelli, “Schema idrogeologico dellItalia Centrale, (Hydrogeological schemes of Central Italy),” Memorie della Società Geologica Italiana, vol. 35, pp. 991–1012, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  5. N. Goldscheider, J. Meiman, M. Pronk, and C. Smart, “Tracer tests in karst hydrogeology and speleology,” International Journal of Speleology, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 27–40, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. F. Fiorillo, “Spring hydrographs as indicators of droughts in a karst environment,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 373, no. 3-4, pp. 290–301, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. J. Moore, J. B. Martin, and E. J. Screaton, “Geochemical and statistical evidence of recharge, mixing, and controls on spring discharge in an eogenetic karst aquifer,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 376, no. 3-4, pp. 443–455, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. McCormack, Y. O'Connell, E. Daly, L. W. Gill, T. Henry, and M. Perriquet, “Characterisation of karst hydrogeology in Western Ireland using geophysical and hydraulic modelling techniques,” Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, vol. 10, pp. 1–17, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. C. Atkinson, “Diffuse flow and conduit flow in limestone terrain in the Mendip Hills, Somerset (Great Britain),” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 35, no. 1-2, pp. 93–110, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Andersson and B. Dverstorp, “Conditional simulations of fluid flow in three‐dimensional networks of discrete fractures,” Water Resources Research, vol. 10, pp. 1876–1886, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. Berkowitz, “Characterizing flow and transport in fractured geological media: a review,” Advances in Water Resources, vol. 25, no. 8–12, pp. 861–884, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. J. Maramathas and A. G. Boudouvis, “Manifestation and measurement of the fractal characteristics of karst hydrogeological formations,” Advances in Water Resources, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 112–116, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. Pardo-Igúzquiza, P. A. Dowd, C. Xu, and J. J. Durán-Valsero, “Stochastic simulation of karst conduit networks,” Advances in Water Resources, vol. 35, pp. 141–150, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Borghi, P. Renard, L. Fournier, and F. Negro, “Stochastic fracture generation accounting for the stratification orientation in a folded environment based on an implicit geological model,” Engineering Geology, vol. 187, pp. 135–142, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Bauer, R. Liedl, and M. Sauter, “Modeling of karst aquifer genesis: Influence of exchange flow,” Water Resources Research, vol. 39, p. 1285, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  16. R. Liedl, M. Sauter, D. Hückinghaus, T. Clemens, and G. Teutsch, “Simulation of the development of karst aquifers using a coupled continuum pipe flow model,” Water Resources Research, vol. 39, no. 3, p. 1057, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. Langevin, “Sthocastic groundwater flow simulation with a fracture zone continuum mode,” Groundwater, vol. 41, pp. 587–601, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. C. Masciopinto, A. Volpe, D. Palmiotta, and C. Cherubini, “A combined PHREEQC-2/parallel fracture model for the simulation of laminar/non-laminar flow and contaminant transport with reactions,” Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, vol. 117, no. 1-4, pp. 94–108, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. Kordilla, M. Sauter, T. Reimann, and T. Geyer, “Simulation of saturated and unsaturated flow in karst systems at catchment scale using a double continuum approach,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 3909–3923, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. Cherubini, C. Giasi, and N. Pastore, “Fluid flow modeling of a coastal fractured karstic aquifer by means of a lumped parameter approach,” Environmental Earth Sciences, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 2055–2060, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. Masciopinto and D. Palmiotta, Flow and Transport in Fractured Aquifers: New Conceptual Models Based on Field Measurments, vol. 96, pp. 117-163, 2003. View at Scopus
  22. M. Sauter, T. Geyer, A. Kovács, and G. Teutsch, “Modeling of the hydraulics of karst aquifers - an overview,” Grundwasser, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 143–156, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P. Celico, “Indagini Idrogeologiche per la progettazione delle opere di parziale captazione dei deflussi sorgivi del Fiume Gari (Cassino), Costruzione dell’Acquedotto della Campania Occidentale,” in Hydrogeological Investigations for Gari Spring Water Captation, p. 200, Cassa per il Mezzogiorno-Servizi di Intervento Straordinari, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  24. P. Celico, “Schema idrogeologico dell’Appennino carbonatico centro-meridionale (Hydrogeological scheme of the central-southern carbonate Apennine),” Memorie e Note dell’Istituto di Geologia Applicata, vol. 14, pp. 1–97, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  25. P. Celico, “Idrogeologia dei massicci carbonatici, delle piane quaternarie e delle aree vulcaniche dell’Italia centro meridionale (Marche, Lazio meridionale, Abruzzo, Molise e Campania),” in Hydrogeology of Carbonate Basins, Quaternary Plains and Volcanic Areas of Central-Southern Italy-Marche, Southern Lazio, Molise and Campania Regions, vol. 4 (2), pp. 1–203, Quaderni della Cassa per il Mezzogiorno, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  26. CASMEZ, “Schemi Idrici Intersettoriali del Lazio Meridionale, Tronto, Abruzzo, Molise e Campania (Hydrogeological schemes for Tronto River and Southern Lazio, Abruzzo, Molise and Campania),” Progetto Speciale 29, Catalogo, Bari, 1978.
  27. M. Bakalowicz, “Karst groundwater: A challenge for new resources,” Hydrogeology Journal, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 148–160, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. Cosentino, P. Cipollari, M. Marsili, and D. Scrocca, “Geology of the Central Italy: a regional review,” in The geology of Italy; tectonics and life along plate margins, M. Meltrando, A. Peccerillo, M. Mattei, S. Conticelli, and C. Doglioni, Eds., vol. 36, pp. 1–37, Journal of Virtual Explorer, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  29. M. Petitta, “Hydrogeology of the Middle Valley of the Velino River and of the S. Vittorino plain (Rieti, Central Italy),” Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment, vol. 1, pp. 157–181, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  30. M. Petitta, P. Primavera, P. Tuccimei, and R. Aravena, “Interaction between deep and shallow groundwater systems in areas affected by Quaternary tectonics (Central Italy): A geochemical and isotope approach,” Environmental Earth Sciences, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 11–30, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Surette and M. D. Allen, “Quantifying heterogeneities in variably fractured rock using a hydrostructural domain,” Geological Society of America Bullettin, vol. 120, pp. 225–237, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Surrette, D. M. Allen, and M. Journeay, “Regional evaluation of hydraulic properties in variably fractured rock using a hydrostructural domain approach,” Hydrogeology Journal, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 11–30, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. N.-Y. Ko, S.-H. Ji, Y.-K. Koh, and J.-W. Choi, “Evaluation of two conceptual approaches for groundwater flow simulation for a rock domain at the block-scale for the Olkiluoto site, Finland,” Engineering Geology, vol. 193, pp. 297–304, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. G. Accordi and F. Carbone, “Sequenze carbonatiche Meso-Cenozoiche, (Meso-Cenozoic carbonatic sequences),” in in Carta delle Litofacies del Lazio-Abruzzo aree limitrofe, G. Accordi and F. Carbone, Eds., vol. 111 of Quaderni della Ricerca Scientifica, pp. 11–92, Roma, CNR, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  35. B. Accordi, A. Angelucci, and G. Sirna, “Note illustrative della carta geologica d’Italia FF. 159-160,” in Illustrative notes of the geological map of Italy, FF.159-160, p. 77, Nuova Tecnica Grafica, Roma, Italy, 1967. View at Google Scholar
  36. G. Devoto, “Lacustrine Pleistocene in the Lower Liri Valley,” Geologica Romana, vol. 4, pp. 291–336, 1965. View at Google Scholar
  37. E. Centamore, D. Rossi, and P. Di Manna, “New data on the kinematic evolution of the Volsci Range,” Italian Journal of Geosciences, vol. 126, pp. 159–172, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  38. M. Parotto and A. Praturlon, “Geological summary of the central Apennines,” in in Structural Model of Italy, vol. 90 of the Quaderni della Ricerca Scientifica, pp. 257–300, CNR, Roma, Italy, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  39. G. P. Cavinato and M. Sirna, “Elementi di tettonica transpressiva lungo la linea di Atina (Lazio Meridionale), (Transpressive elements along the Atina tectonic line),” Memorie della Società Geologica Italiana, vol. 41, pp. 1179–1190, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  40. M. Zalaffi, “Su alcune piccole strutture della piana di Cassino, (The small carbonatic structures of the Cassino plain),” Memorie della Società Geological Italiana, vol. 4, pp. 1–14, 1964. View at Google Scholar
  41. B. Accordi, “La componente traslativa nella tettonica dellAppennino laziale-abruzzese (The contractional tectonics in the Lazio-Abruzzi Apennine),” Memorie della Società Geologica Italiana, vol. 5, pp. 355–406, 1966. View at Google Scholar
  42. C. F. Boni and P. Bono, “Segnalazione di un gruppo di grandi sorgenti nel bacino del Fiume Peccia, aggluente del Garigliano, (Highlighting of huge springs in the Peccia-Garigliano River basin),” Geologica Romana, vol. 12, pp. 227–242, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  43. P. Celico and V. Stanganelli, “Sulla struttura idrogeologica dei Monti di Venafro (Italia Meridionale), (The hydrogeological structure of the Venafro Mts.-Southern Italy),” Bollettino della Società dei Naturalisti, vol. 85, pp. 153–178, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  44. M. Saroli, M. Lancia, M. Albano, G. Modoni, M. Moro, and G. Scarascia Mugnozza, “New geological data on the Cassino intermontane basin, central Apennines, Italy,” Rendiconti Lincei, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 189–196, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. ISRM, “Suggested methods for the quantitative description of dicontinuities in rock masses,” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science, vol. 15, pp. 319–368, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  46. P. A. Witherspoon, J. S. Y. Wang, K. Iwai, and J. E. Gale, “Validity of cubic law for fluid flow in a deformable rock fracture,” Water Resources Research, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1016–1024, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. C. Louis, “A study of groundwater flow in jointed rock and its influence on the stability of rock masses,” Rock Mechanics Research Report, vol. 10, Imperial College, London, p. 90, 1964. View at Google Scholar
  48. R. W. Zimmerman, A. Al-Yaarubi, C. C. Pain, and C. A. Grattoni, “Non-linear regimes of fluid flow in rock fractures,” International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. P. G. Ranjith and W. Darlington, “Nonlinear single-phase flow in real rock joints,” Water Resources Research, vol. 43, no. 9, Article ID W09502, pp. 1–9, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. C. Cherubini, C. I. Giasi, and N. Pastore, “Evidence of non-Darcy flow and non-Fickian transport in fractured media at laboratory scale,” Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol. 17, pp. 2599–2611, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  51. J. Rutqvist and O. Stephansson, “The role of the hydromechanical coupling in fractured rock engineering,” Hydrogeology Journal, vol. 11, pp. 11–40, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  52. C. Klimczak, R. A. Schultz, R. Parashar, and D. M. Reeves, “Cubic law with aperture-length correlation: Implications for network scale fluid flow,” Hydrogeology Journal, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 851–862, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. H. Darcy, Les Fountaine publiques de la Ville de Dijon , (The public springs of the Dijion villa, pp. 647, Paris, Dalmont, 1956.
  54. T. F. M. Chui and D. Freyberg, “The use of COMSOL for integrated hydrogeological models,” in Proceedings of the COMSOL conference, pp. 217–223, COMSOL INC., Boston, MA, USA, 2007.
  55. M. Zalaffi, “Osservazioni su alcuni affioramenti di farina di dolomia al bordo meridionale del Matese, (Observations of tectonized dolostone along the Matese Mts. southern border),” Bollettino della Società Geologica Italiana, vol. 88, pp. 161–170, 1968. View at Google Scholar