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Geofluids
Volume 2018, Article ID 9461214, 19 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9461214
Research Article

High-Resolution Wellbore Temperature Logging Combined with a Borehole-Scale Heat Budget: Conceptual and Analytical Approaches to Characterize Hydraulically Active Fractures and Groundwater Origin

1Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Geotop-UQAM, Montréal, QC, Canada
2Spiez Laboratory, Federal Office for Civil Protection, Spiez, Switzerland
3CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon, France
4Department of Earth Sciences, GEOPS Laboratory, Paris-Saclay University, Paris-Sud University, CNRS, Orsay, France
5MINES Paris Tech, Paris, France
6Envir’Eau-Puits Inc., Saint-Nicolas, QC, Canada

Correspondence should be addressed to Guillaume Meyzonnat; ac.maqu@emualliug.tannozyem

Received 29 June 2017; Revised 18 October 2017; Accepted 20 February 2018; Published 3 April 2018

Academic Editor: Walter A. Illman

Copyright © 2018 Guillaume Meyzonnat et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This work aims to provide an overview of the thermal processes that shape wellbore temperature profiles under static and dynamic conditions. Understanding of the respective influences of advection and conduction heat fluxes is improved through the use of a new heat budget at the borehole scale. Keeping in mind the thermal processes involved, a qualitative interpretation of the temperature profiles allows the occurrence, the position, and the origin of groundwater flowing into wellbores from hydraulically active fractures to be constrained. With the use of a heat budget developed at the borehole scale, temperature logging efficiency has been quantitatively enhanced and allows inflow temperatures to be calculated through the simultaneous use of a flowmeter. Under certain hydraulic or pumping conditions, both inflow intensities and associated temperatures can also be directly modelled from temperature data and the use of the heat budget. Theoretical and applied examples of the heat budget application are provided. Applied examples are shown using high-resolution temperature logging, spinner flow metering, and televiewing for three wells installed in fractured bedrock aquifers in the St-Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, Canada. Through relatively rapid manipulations, thermal measurements in such cases can be used to detect the intervals or discrete positions of hydraulically active fractures in wellbores, as well as the existence of ambient flows with a high degree of sensitivity, even at very low flows. Heat budget calculations at the borehole scale during pumping indicate that heat advection fluxes rapidly dominate over heat conduction fluxes with the borehole wall. The full characterization of inflow intensities provides information about the distribution of hydraulic properties with depth. The full knowledge of inflow temperatures indicates horizons that are drained from within the aquifer, providing advantageous information on the depth from which groundwater originates during pumping.