Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Geofluids
Volume 2018, Article ID 9479528, 21 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9479528
Research Article

Modelling Seismically Induced Mesothermal Goldfields along the Deep-Rooted Cadillac-Larder Lake Fault, Abitibi, Canada

1Centre d’Études sur les Ressources Minérales, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, QC, Canada G7H 2B1
2Consortium de Recherche en Exploration Minérale (CONSOREM), 555 boulevard de l’Université, Chicoutimi, QC, Canada G7H 2B1
3Ministère de l’Énergie et des Ressources Naturelles du Québec, 201, avenue du Président-Kennedy, Montréal, QC, Canada H2X 3Y7

Correspondence should be addressed to Pierre Bedeaux; ac.caqu@xuaedeb.erreip

Received 3 November 2017; Accepted 23 January 2018; Published 25 February 2018

Academic Editor: Alexander Gysi

Copyright © 2018 Pierre Bedeaux et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. I. Groves, R. J. Goldfarb, M. Gebre-Mariam, S. G. Hagemann, and F. Robert, “Orogenic gold deposits: a proposed classification in the context of their crustal distribution and relationship to other gold deposit types,” Ore Geology Reviews, vol. 13, no. 1–5, pp. 7–27, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. Kerrich, R. J. Goldfarb, D. I. Groves, G. Steven, and J. Yiefei, “The characteristics, origins, and geodynamic settings of supergiant gold metallogenic provinces,” Science in China, vol. 43, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  3. R. J. Goldfarb, D. I. Groves, and S. Gardoll, “Orogenic gold and geologic time: a global synthesis,” Ore Geology Reviews, vol. 18, no. 1-2, pp. 1–75, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. I. Groves, R. J. Goldfarb, F. Robert, and C. J. R. Hart, “Gold deposits in metamorphic belts: Overview of current understanding, outstanding problems, future research, and exploration significance,” Economic Geology, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 1–29, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. B. Dubé and P. Gosselin, “Mineral deposits of Canada: a synthesis of major deposit-types, district metallogeny, the evolution of geological provinces, and exploration methods,” Geological Association of Canada, Mineral Deposits Division, Special Publication, vol. 5, pp. 49–73, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  6. R. H. Sibson, F. Robert, and K. H. Poulsen, “High-angle reverse faults, fluid-pressure cycling, and mesothermal gold-quartz deposits,” Geology, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 551–555, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A.-M. Boullier and F. Robert, “Palaeoseismic events recorded in Archaean gold-quartz vein networks, Val d'Or, Abitibi, Quebec, Canada,” Journal of Structural Geology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 161–179, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. Robert, A. Boullier, and K. Firdaous, “Gold-quartz veins in metamorphic terranes and their bearing on the role of fluids in faulting,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol. 100, no. B7, pp. 12861–12879, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. S. F. Cox and K. Ruming, “The St Ives mesothermal gold system, Western Australia - A case of golden aftershocks?” Journal of Structural Geology, vol. 26, no. 6-7, pp. 1109–1125, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. F. Cox, “Injection-driven swarm seismicity and permeability enhancement: Implications for the dynamics of hydrothermal ore systems in high fluid-flux, overpressured faulting regimes—An invited paper,” Economic Geology, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 559–587, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. F. Weinberg, P. van der Borgh, R. J. Bateman, and D. I. Groves, “Kinematic history of the Boulder-Lefroy shear zone system and controls on associated gold mineralization, Yilgarn craton, Western Australia,” Economic Geology, vol. 100, no. 7, pp. 1407–1426, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. O. Rabeau, M. Legault, A. Cheilletz, M. Jébrak, J. J. Royer, and L. Z. Cheng, “Gold potential of a hidden Archean fault zone: The case of the Cadillac-Larder Lake fault,” Exploration and Mining Geology, vol. 19, no. 3-4, pp. 99–116, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Doutre R., S. Micklethwaite, P. Kovesi, McCuaig C. T., A. Ford, and N. Hayward, “Multi-scale spacing and endowment of orogenic gold deposits,” Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy: Asga-Assoc Scientifique Geologie & Applications, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  14. J. L. Mair, V. J. Ojala, B. P. Salier, D. I. Groves, and S. M. Brown, “Application of stress mapping in cross-section to understanding ore geometry, predicting ore zones and development of drilling strategies,” Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 895–912, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Micklethwaite and S. F. Cox, “Fault-segment rupture, aftershock-zone fluid flow, and mineralization,” Geology, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 813–816, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. F. Weinberg, P. F. Hodkiewicz, and D. I. Groves, “What controls gold distribution in Archean terranes?” Geology, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 545–548, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. I. Manighetti, D. Zigone, M. Campillo, and F. Cotton, “Self-similarity of the largest-scale segmentation of the faults: Implications for earthquake behavior,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 288, no. 3-4, pp. 370–381, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. C. Jaumé and L. R. Sykes, “Changes in state of stress on the southern San Andreas fault resulting from the California earthquake sequence of April to June 1992,” Science, vol. 258, no. 5086, pp. 1325–1328, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. S. Stein, G. C. P. King, and J. Lin, “Change in failure stress on the southern San Andreas fault system caused by the 1992 magnitude = 7.4 Landers earthquake,” Science, vol. 258, no. 5086, pp. 1328–1332, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. G. C. P. King, R. S. Stein, and J. Lin, “Static stress changes and the triggering of earthquakes,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol. 84, pp. 935–953, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  21. R. S. Stein, A. A. Barka, and J. H. Dieterich, “Progressive failure on the North Anatolian fault since 1939 by earthquake stress triggering,” Geophysical Journal International, vol. 128, no. 3, pp. 594–604, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. L. Hardebeck, J. J. Nazareth, and E. Hauksson, “The static stress change triggering model: Constraints from two southern California aftershock sequences,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol. 103, no. 10, pp. 24427–24437, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. W. J. Bosl, “Aftershocks and pore fluid diffusion following the 1992 Landers earthquake,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 107, no. 2366, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  24. D. K. Weatherley and R. W. Henley, “Flash vaporization during earthquakes evidenced by gold deposits,” Nature Geoscience, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 294–298, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. A. Etheridge, V. J. Wall, and R. H. Vernon, “The role of the fluid phase during regional metamorphism and deformation,” J. Metamorph. Geol, vol. 1, pp. 205–226, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  26. S. Micklethwaite and S. F. Cox, “Progressive fault triggering and fluid flow in aftershock domains: Examples from mineralized Archaean fault systems,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 250, no. 1-2, pp. 318–330, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. H. A. Sheldon and S. Micklethwaite, “Damage and permeability around faults: Implications for mineralization,” Geology, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 903–906, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Micklethwaite, A. Ford, W. Witt, and H. A. Sheldon, “The where and how of faults, fluids and permeability - insights from fault stepovers, scaling properties and gold mineralisation,” Geofluids, vol. 15, no. 1-2, pp. 240–251, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. Micklethwaite, Predictability, Unpredictability and Dynamic Fault Behaviour During Epithermal Deposit Formation, James Cook Univ, Townsville, Queensland, 2010.
  30. S. Rafini, “Typologie des minéralisations aurifères associées à la Faille de Cadillac,” CONSOREM Project Reports 2011-01, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  31. D. L. Wells and K. J. Coppersmith, “New empirical relationships among magnitude, rupture length, rupture width, rupture area, and surface displacement,” Bulletin - Seismological Society of America, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 974–1002, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Leonard, “Earthquake fault scaling: self-consistent relating of rupture length, width, average displacement, and moment release,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol. 100, pp. 1971–1988, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. F. Amelung and G. King, “Earthquake scaling laws for creeping and non-creeping faults,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 507–510, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. J. Gibowicz and S. Lasocki, “Analysis of shallow and deep earthquake doublets in the Fiji-Tonga-Kermadec region,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, vol. 164, no. 1, pp. 53–74, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J.-P. Desrochers and C. Hubert, “Structural evolution and early accretion of the Archean Malartic Composite Block, southern Abitibi greenstone belt, Quebec, Canada,” Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 1556–1569, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. Daigneault, W. U. Mueller, and E. H. Chown, “Oblique Archean subduction: Accretion and exhumation of an oceanic arc during dextral transpression, Southern Volcanic Zone, Abitibi Subprovince Canada,” Precambrian Research, vol. 115, no. 1-4, pp. 261–290, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. O. Rabeau, Distribution de l’or de type orogénique le long de grands couloirs de déformation archéens: modélisation numérique sur l’exemple de la ceinture de l’Abitibi [Ph.D. thesis], Université du Québec à Montréal, 2010.
  38. S. Rafini, “Modélisation de la dynamique sismique de la faille Cadillac—Impact sur la genèse des gisements aurifères orogéniques,” Projet CONSOREM, no. 2008-01 - Phase III, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  39. E. H. Chown, R. Daigneault, W. Mueller, and J. K. Mortensen, “Tectonic evolution of the Northern Volcanic Zone, Abitibi Belt, Quebec,” Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 2211–2225, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. L. Wilkinson, A. R. Cruden, and T. E. Krogh, “Timing and kinematics of post-Timiskaming deformation within the Larder Lake - Cadillac deformation zone, southwest Abitibi greenstone belt, Ontario, Canada,” Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 627–647, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. P. Bedeaux, P. Pilote, R. Daigneault, and S. Rafini, “Synthesis of the structural evolution and associated gold mineralization of the Cadillac Fault, Abitibi, Canada,” Ore Geology Reviews, vol. 82, pp. 49–69, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. E. Dimroth, L. Imreh, N. Goulet, and M. Rocheleau, “Evolution of the south-central section of the Archean Abitibi belt, Quebec. Part II: Tectonic evolution and geomechanical model.,” Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1355–1373, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. F. Robert, “Internal structure of the Cadillac tectonic zone southeast of Val d'Or, Abitibi greenstone belt, Quebec,” Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 2661–2675, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. Zhang, S. Lin, R. Linnen, and R. Martin, “Structural setting of the young-davidson syenite-hosted gold deposit in the western cadillac-larder lake deformation zone, abitibi greenstone belt, superior province, ontario,” Precambrian Research, vol. 248, pp. 39–59, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. B. Lafrance, “Geology of the orogenic cheminis gold deposit along the larder lake – cadillac deformation zone, Ontario,” Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 1093–1108, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. E. Dimroth, L. Imreh, N. Goulet, and M. Rocheleau, “Evolution of the south-central segment of the Archean Abitibi belt, Quebec. Part III: Plutonic and metamorphic evolution and geotectonic model.,” Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1374–1388, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. W. G. Powell, D. M. Carmichael, and C. J. Hodgson, “Conditions and timing of metamorphism in the southern Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Quebec,” Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 787–805, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. P. Neumayr, S. G. Hagemann, D. A. Banks et al., “Fluid chemistry and evolution of hydrothermal fluids in an Archaean transcrustal fault zone network: The case of the Cadillac Tectonic Zone, Abitibi greenstone belt, Canada,” Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 745–773, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. P. Neumayr, S. G. Hagemann, and J.-F. Couture, “Structural setting, textures, and timing of hydrothermal vein systems in the Val d'Or camp, Abitibi, Canada: Implications for the evolution of transcrustal, second- and third-order fault zones and gold mineralization,” Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 95–114, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. Simard, D. Gaboury, R. Daigneault, and P. Mercier-Langevin, “Multistage gold mineralization at the Lapa mine, Abitibi Subprovince: Insights into auriferous hydrothermal and metasomatic processes in the Cadillac-Larder Lake Fault Zone,” Mineralium Deposita, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 883–905, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. De Souza, B. Dubé, V. J. McNicoll et al., “Geology, hydrothermal alteration, and genesis of the world-class canadian malartic stockwork-disseminated archean gold deposit, abitibi, quebec,” in Targeted Geoscience Initiative 4: Contributions to the Understanding of Precambrian Lode Gold Deposits and Implications for Exploration, B. Dubé and P. Mercier-Langevin, Eds., vol. 7852, pp. 113–126, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. G. Beaudoin and D. Pitre, “Stable isotope geochemistry of the Archean Val-d'Or (Canada) orogenic gold vein field,” Mineralium Deposita, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 59–75, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. C. Claoué-Long, R. W. King, and R. Kerrich, “Archaean hydrothermal zircon in the Abitibi greenstone belt: constraints on the timing of gold mineralisation,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 109–128, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. F. Corfu and D. W. Davis, “Comment on "Archean hydrothermal zircon in the Abitibi greenstone belt: constraints on the timing of gold mineralization" by J.C. Claoué-Long, R.W. King and R. Kerrich,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 104, no. 2-4, pp. 545–552, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. C. Claoué-Long, R. W. King, and R. Kerrich, “Reply to comment by F. Corfu and D.W. Davis on "Archaean hydrothermal zircon in the Abitibi greenstone belt: constraints on the timing of gold mineralisation",” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 109, no. 3-4, pp. 601–609, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J.-F. Couture, P. Pilote, N. Machado, and J.-P. Desrochers, “Timing of gold mineralization in the Val-d'Or district, southern Abitibi Belt: evidence for two distinct mineralizing events,” Economic Geology, vol. 89, no. 7, pp. 1542–1551, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. R. Kerrich and T. K. Kyser, “100 Ma timing paradox of Archean gold, Abitibi greenstone belt (Canada): new evidence from U-Pb and Pb-Pb evaporation ages of hydrothermal zircons,” Geology, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 1131–1134, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. Jébrak, D. Morin, H. Zadeh, M. Bardoux, N. Goulet, and C. Giguère, “Gitologie du gisement aurifère de McWatters, région de Rouyn-Noranda. Ministère de lÉnergie et des Ressources,” Ministère de l’Énergie et des Ressources, pp. 91–12, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  59. J. R. Smith, Spooner E. T. C., D. W. Broughton, and F. R. Ploeger, “Archean Au-Ag-(W) quartz vein/disseminated mineralisation within the larder lake - cadillac break, kerr addison - chesterville system,” Ontario Geological Survey 5831, Ontario Geoscience Research Grant Program, North East Ontario, Canada, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  60. V. Ispolatov, B. Lafrance, B. Dubé, R. Creaser, and M. Hamilton, “Geologie and structural setting of gold mineralization in the Kirkland Lake-Larder Lake gold belt, Ontario,” Economic Geology, vol. 103, no. 6, pp. 1309–1340, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. F. Robert, K. H. Poulsen, K. F. Cassidy, and C. J. Hodgson, “Gold metallogeny of the superior and yilgarn cratons,” Economic Geology 100th Anniversary Volume, pp. 1001–1033, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  62. C. W. Nixon, D. J. Sanderson, S. J. Dee, J. M. Bull, R. J. Humphreys, and M. H. Swanson, “Fault interactions and reactivation within a normal-fault network at Milne Point, Alaska,” AAPG Bulletin, vol. 98, no. 10, pp. 2081–2107, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. D. C. P. Peacock, “Displacements and segment linkage in strike-slip fault zones,” Journal of Structural Geology, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 1025–1035, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. K. L. H. Hughes, T. Masterlark, and W. D. Mooney, “Poroelastic stress-triggering of the 2005 M8.7 Nias earthquake by the 2004 M9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 293, no. 3-4, pp. 289–299, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. N. M. Beeler, R. W. Simpson, S. H. Hickman, and D. A. Lockner, “Pore fluid pressure, apparent friction, and Coulomb failure,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol. 105, no. 11, Article ID 2000JB900119, pp. 25533–25542, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. H. F. Wang, “Quasi-static poroelastic parameters in rock and their geophysical applications,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, vol. 141, pp. 269–286, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  67. S. Toda, R. S. Stein, P. A. Reasenberg, J. H. Dieterich, and A. Yoshida, “Stress transferred by the 1995 Mw = 6.9 Kobe, Japan, shock: Effect on aftershocks and future earthquake probabilities,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol. 103, no. 10, pp. 24543–24565, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. T. Lay and H. Kanamori, “Earthquake doublets in the Solomon Islands,” Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 283–304, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. G. Daniel, Réponse sismique de la croûte terrestre à un changement de contrainte: application aux doublets de séismes, Université Joseph Fournier, 2007.
  70. P. Cundall, “UDEC, a generalised distinct element program for modelling jointed rock,” Contract Rep., DAJA 37–39-C-0548, U.S. Army Europ. Res. Office and Defence Nucl. Agency, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  71. P. W. Holyland and V. J. Ojala, “Computer‐aided structural targeting in mineral exploration: Two‐ and three‐dimensional stress mapping,” Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 421–432, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. J. G. McLellan and N. H. S. Oliver, “Discrete element modelling applied to mineral prospectivity analysis in the eastern Mount Isa Inlier,” Precambrian Research, vol. 163, no. 1-2, pp. 174–188, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. P. Martin Mai and G. C. Beroza, “Source scaling properties from finite-fault-rupture models,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 604–615, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. S. G. Wesnousky, “Displacement and geometrical characteristics of earthquake surface ruptures: Issues and implications for seismic-hazard analysis and the process of earthquake rupture,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 1609–1632, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. F. Birch, “Section 7: Compressibility; Elastic constants,” Geological Society of America Memoirs, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 97–173, 1966. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. R. E. Goodman, Introduction to Roc Mechanics, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1989.
  77. J. D. Bass, “Elasticity of minerals, glasses, and melts,” in Mineral Physics & Crystallography: A Handbook of Physical Constants, vol. 2 of AGU Reference Shelf, pp. 45–63, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. R. Pusch, “Rock mechanics on a geological base,” Developments in Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 77, pp. 327–350, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  79. P. Pilote, R. Daigneault, J. David, and V. McNicoll, “Architecture of the Malartic, Piché and Cadillac groups and the Cadillac Fault: Geological revisions, new dates and interpretations,” in Abstracts of oral presentations and posters, Québec Mines, p. 37, Ministère de l’Énergie et des Ressources Naturelles, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  80. P. Pilote, P. Lacoste, R. Daigneault, J. David, and V. McNicoll, “Geology of the malartic group and adjacent volcano-sedimentary groups: overview and outlook,” in Abstracts of Oral Presentations and Posters, Québec Mines, 37 pages, Ministère de l’Énergie et des Ressources Naturelles, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  81. R. H. Sibson, “Earthquake faulting as a structural process,” Journal of Structural Geology, vol. 11, no. 1-2, pp. 1–14, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. D. Amitrano, “Emerging complexity in a simple model of the mechanical behaviour of rocks,” Comptes Rendus - Geoscience, vol. 336, no. 6, pp. 505–512, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. R. Robinson, “Potential earthquake triggering in a complex fault network: The northern South Island, New Zealand,” Geophysical Journal International, vol. 159, no. 2, pp. 734–748, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. D. Amitrano, “Variability in the power-law distributions of rupture events,” The European Physical Journal Special Topics, vol. 205, no. 1, pp. 199–215, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. S. Pailoplee, “Mapping of b-Value Anomalies Along the Strike-Slip Fault System on the Thailand-Myanmar Border: Implications for Upcoming Earthquakes,” Journal of Earthquake and Tsunami, vol. 11, no. 2, Article ID 1671001, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. D. Schorlemmer, S. Wiemer, and M. Wyss, “Variations in earthquake-size distribution across different stress regimes,” Nature, vol. 437, no. 7058, pp. 539–542, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. M. W. Stirling, S. G. Wesnousky, and K. Shimazaki, “Fault trace complexity, cumulative slip, and the shape of the magnitude-frequency distribution for strike-slip faults: A global survey,” Geophysical Journal International, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 833–868, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. Y. Bayrak, A. Yilmaztürk, and S. Öztürk, “Lateral variations of the modal (a/b) values for the different regions of the world,” Journal of Geodynamics, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 653–666, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. A. Kishida and R. Kerrich, “Hydrothermal alteration zoning and gold concentration at the Kerr- Addison Archean lode gold deposit, Kirkland Lake, Ontario ( Canada).,” Economic Geology, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 649–690, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. J.-F. Couture and P. Pilote, “The geology and alteration patterns of a disseminated, shear zone- hosted mesothermal gold deposit: the Francoeur 3 deposit, Rouyn- Noranda, Quebec,” Economic Geology, vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 1664–1684, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. A. C. Colvine, J. A. Fyon, K. B. Heather, S. Marmont, P. M. Smith, and D. G. Troop, “Archean lode gold deposits in Ontario. Surv. Ont. Geol,” Ontario Geological Survey, Miscellaneous Papers, vol. 139, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  92. L. Bigot, “Typologie des altérations associées aux minéralisations aurifères en Abitibi. Rapport,” Projet CONSOREM 2013-07, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  93. S. Trépanier, L. Mathieu, R. Daigneault, and S. Faure, “Precursors predicted by artificial neural networks for mass balance calculations: Quantifying hydrothermal alteration in volcanic rocks,” Computers & Geosciences, vol. 89, pp. 32–43, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. F. Robert and A. C. Brown, “Archean gold-bearing quartz veins at the Sigma Mine, Abitibi greenstone belt, Quebec: Part I. Geologic relations and formation of the vein system.,” Economic Geology, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 578–592, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. L. Vu, R. Darling, J. Beland, and V. Popov, “Structure of the Ferderber gold deposit, Belmoral Mines LTD, Val-dOr, Québec,” CIM Bull, vol. 80, pp. 68–77, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  96. K. Ferkous and A. Tremblay, “An example of synkinematic gold mineralization (Wrightbar), associated with a thrust fault, in the Abitibi Archaen area (Canada),” Comptes Rendus de l'Academie de Sciences - Serie IIa: Sciences de la Terre et des Planetes, vol. 330, no. 2, pp. 117–123, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. A. Belkabir, F. Robert, L. Vu, and C. Hubert, “The influence of dikes on auriferous shear zone development within granitoid intrusions: the Bourlamaque Pluton, Val-d'Or district, Abitibi greenstone belt,” Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1924–1933, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. P. Neumayr and S. G. Hagemann, “Hydrothermal fluid evolution within the Cadillac tectonic zone, Abitibi greenstone belt, Canada: Relationship to auriferous fluids in adjacent second- and third-order shear zones,” Economic Geology, vol. 97, no. 6, pp. 1203–1225, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. R. H. Sibson, “Implications of fault-valve behaviour for rupture nucleation and recurrence,” Tectonophysics, vol. 211, no. 1-4, pp. 283–293, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. J. A. D. Connolly, “Devolatilization-generated fluid pressure and deformation-propagated fluid flow during prograde regional metamorphism,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol. 102, no. 8, pp. 18149–18173, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. G. N. Phillips and R. Powell, “Formation of gold deposits: A metamorphic devolatilization model,” Journal of Metamorphic Geology, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 689–718, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. J. Ridley and L. W. Diamond, “Fluid chemistry of lode-gold deposits, and implications for genetic models,” Review in Economic Geology, vol. 13, pp. 141–162, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  103. R. Bateman and S. Hagemann, “Gold mineralisation throughout about 45 Ma of Archaean orogenesis: Protracted flux of gold in the Golden Mile, Yilgarn craton, Western Australia,” Mineralium Deposita, vol. 39, no. 5-6, pp. 536–559, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. P. Bedeaux, Minéralisations et déformation à proximité de la Faille de Davidson, Abitibi, Canada. [M.S. thesis], Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, Canada, 2012.
  105. D. Gaboury, “Does gold in orogenic deposits come from pyrite in deeply buried carbon-rich sediments?: Insight from volatiles in fluid inclusions,” Geology, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 1207–1210, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. J. Zhang, S. F. Lin, R. Linnen, and R. Martin, “Structural setting of the Young-Davidson syenite-hosted gold deposit in the Western Cadillac-Larder Lake Deformation Zone, Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Superior Province, Ontario,” Precambrian Research, vol. 248, pp. 39–59, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. M. Jébrak, C. Lebrun, A. André-Mayer, and M. Simard, “Native antimony emplaced by methane-rich hydrothermal fluid in an orogenic fault-zone,” Terra Nova, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 401–408, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  108. A. J. Calvert and J. N. Ludden, “Archean continental assembly in the southeastern superior province of Canada,” Tectonics, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 412–429, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. S. Husen and E. Kissling, “Postseismic fluid flow after the large subduction earthquake of Antofagasta, Chile,” Geology, vol. 29, pp. 847–850, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  110. S. E. J. Nippress and A. Rietbrock, “Seismogenic zone high permeability in the Central Andes inferred from relocations of micro-earthquakes,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 263, no. 3-4, pp. 235–245, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. S. A. Miller, C. Collettini, L. Chiaraluce, M. Cocco, M. Barchi, and B. J. P. Kaus, “Aftershocks driven by a high-pressure CO2 source at depth,” Nature, vol. 4270, no. 6976, pp. 724–727, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. A. Antonioli, D. Piccinini, L. Chiaraluce, and M. Cocco, “Fluid flow and seismicity pattern: Evidence from the 1997 Umbria-Marche (central Italy) seismic sequence,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1–4, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. T. Terakawa, S. A. Miller, and N. Deichmann, “High fluid pressure and triggered earthquakes in the enhanced geothermal system in Basel, Switzerland,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol. 117, no. 7, Article ID B07305, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. S. E. Drummond and H. Ohmoto, “Chemical evolution and mineral deposition in boiling hydrothermal systems.,” Economic Geology, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 126–147, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. M. A. Kokh, M. Lopez, P. Gisquet et al., “Combined effect of carbon dioxide and sulfur on vapor-liquid partitioning of metals in hydrothermal systems,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 187, pp. 311–333, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. M. Cloos, “Bubbling magma chambers, cupolas, and porphyry copper deposits,” International Geology Review, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 285–311, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. P. F. Hodkiewicz, D. I. Groves, G. J. Davidson, R. F. Weinberg, and S. G. Hagemann, “Influence of structural setting on sulphur isotopes in Archean orogenic gold deposits, Eastern Goldfields Province, Yilgarn, Western Australia,” Mineralium Deposita, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 129–150, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. Y. Zhu, F. An, and J. Tan, “Geochemistry of hydrothermal gold deposits: A review,” Geoscience Frontiers, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 367–374, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. G. S. Pokrovski, N. N. Akinfiev, A. Y. Borisova, A. V. Zotov, and K. Kouzmanov, “Gold speciation and transport in geological fluids: Insights from experiments and physical-chemical modelling,” Geological Society, London, Special Publications, vol. 402, no. 1, pp. 9–70, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. D. Y. Zezin, A. A. Migdisov, and A. E. Williams-Jones, “The solubility of gold in H2O-H2S vapour at elevated temperature and pressure,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 75, no. 18, pp. 5140–5153, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. A. A. Migdisov and A. E. Williams-Jones, “A predictive model for metal transport of silver chloride by aqueous vapor in ore-forming magmatic-hydrothermal systems,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 104, pp. 123–135, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. R. H. Sibson, “An episode of fault-valve behaviour during compressional inversion? - The 2004 MJ6.8 Mid-Niigata Prefecture, Japan, earthquake sequence,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 257, no. 1-2, pp. 188–199, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. S. A. Shapiro, R. Patzig, E. Rothert, and J. Rindschwentner, “Triggering of seismicity by pore-pressure perturbations: permeability-related signatures of the phenomenon,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, vol. 160, no. 5-6, pp. 1051–1066, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. M. Parotidis, S. A. Shapiro, and E. Rothert, “Evidence for triggering of the Vogtland swarms 2000 by pore pressure diffusion,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol. 110, no. 5, pp. 1–12, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. G. Calderoni, R. Di Giovambattista, P. Burrato, and G. Ventura, “A seismic sequence from Northern Apennines (Italy) provides new insight on the role of fluids in the active tectonics of accretionary wedges,” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 281, no. 1-2, pp. 99–109, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. C. Chiarabba, D. Piccinini, and P. de Gori, “Velocity and attenuation tomography of the Umbria Marche 1997 fault system: Evidence of a fluid-governed seismic sequence,” Tectonophysics, vol. 476, no. 1-2, pp. 73–84, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. S. Micklethwaite, H. A. Sheldon, and T. Baker, “Active fault and shear processes and their implications for mineral deposit formation and discovery,” Journal of Structural Geology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 151–165, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. N. G. Leventis, Exploring the source of metals in Archean orogenic gold deposits in the Abitibi Greenstone Belt [M.S. thesis], Stockholm University, Canada, 2017.