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In Silico Analysis of the Gene Expression Patterns between Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma and Nonfunctional Adrenocortical Adenoma
Primary aldosteronism is the most common form of secondary hypertension, and aldosteronoma makes up a significant proportion of primary aldosteronism cases. Aldosteronoma is also called aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). Although there have been many studies about APA, the pathogenesis of this disease is not yet fully understood. In this study, we aimed to find out the difference of gene expression patterns between APA and nonfunctional adrenocortical adenoma (NFAA) using a weighted gene coexpression network (WGCNA) and differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis; only the genes that meet the corresponding standards of both methods were defined as real hub genes and then used for further analysis. Twenty-nine real hub genes were found out, most of which were enriched in the phospholipid metabolic process. WISP2, S100A10, SSTR5-AS1, SLC29A1, APOC1, and SLITRK4 are six real hub genes with the same gene expression pattern between the combined and validation datasets, three of which indirectly or directly participate in lipid metabolism including WISP2, S100A10, and APOC1. According to the gene expression pattern of DEGs, we speculated five candidate drugs with potential therapeutic value for APA, one of which is cycloheximide, an inhibitor for phospholipid biosynthesis. All the evidence suggests that phospholipid metabolism may be an important pathophysiological mechanism for APA. Our study provides a new perspective regarding the pathophysiological mechanism of APA and offers some small molecules that may possibly be effective drugs against APA.
Transcriptome Profiles of the Liver in Two Cold-Exposed Sheep Breeds Revealed Different Mechanisms and Candidate Genes for Thermogenesis
Cold-induced thermogenesis plays an important role in the survival of lambs exposed to low air temperatures. The liver produces and mediates heat production in mammals; however, to date, little is known about the role of liver genes in cold-induced thermogenesis in lambs. In this study, the difference in the liver transcriptome between Altay and Hu ewe lambs was compared. Because of different backgrounds of the two breeds, we hypothesized that the transcriptome profiles of the liver would differ between breeds when exposed to cold. Cold-exposed Altay lambs activated 8 candidate genes (ACTA1, MYH1, MYH2, MYL1, MYL2, TNNC1, TNNC2, and TNNT3) involved in muscle shivering thermogenesis; 3 candidate genes (ATP2A1, SLN, and CKM) involved in muscle nonshivering thermogenesis related to the Ca2+ signal and creatine cycle; and 6 candidate genes (PFKM, ALDOC, PGAM2, ENO2, ENO3, and ENO4) involved in enhancing liver metabolism. In contrast, the liver may not act as the main tissue for thermogenesis in cold-exposed Hu lambs. We concluded that Altay lambs rely on liver-mediated shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis by muscle tissue to a greater extent than Hu lambs. Results from this study could provide a theoretical foundation for the breeding and production of cold-resistant lambs.
Comparison and Analysis on the Existing Single-Herbal Strategies against Viral Myocarditis
Purpose. Herbal medicine is one of crucial symbols of Chinese national medicine. Investigation on molecular responses of different herbal strategies against viral myocarditis is immeasurably conducive to targeting drug development in the current international absence of miracle treatment. Methods. Literature retrieval platforms were applied in the collection of existing empirical evidences for viral myocarditis-related single-herbal strategies. SwissTargetPrediction, Metascape, and Discovery Studio coordinating with multidatabases investigated underlying target genes, interactive proteins, and docking molecules in turn. Results. Six single-herbal medicines consisting of Huangqi (Hedysarum Multijugum Maxim), Yuganzi (Phyllanthi Fructus), Kushen (Sophorae Flavescentis Radix), Jianghuang (Curcumaelongae Rhizoma), Chaihu (Radix Bupleuri), and Jixueteng (Spatholobus Suberectus Dunn) meet the requirement. There were 11 overlapped and 73 unique natural components detected in these herbs. SLC6A2, SLC6A4, NOS2, PPARA, PPARG, ACHE, CYP2C19, CYP51A1, and CHRM2 were equally targeted by six herbs and identified as viral myocarditis-associated symbols. MCODE algorithm exposed the hub role of SRC and EGFR in strategies without Jianghuang. Subsequently, we learned intermolecular interactions of herbal components and their targeting heart-tissue-specific CHRM2, FABP3, TNNC1, TNNI3, TNNT2, and SCN5A and cardiac-myocytes-specific IL6, MMP1, and PLAT coupled with viral myocarditis. Ten interactive characteristics such as π-alkyl and van der Waals were modeled in which ARG111, LYS253, ILE114, and VAL11 on cardiac troponin (TNNC1-TNNI3-TNNT2) and ARG208, ASN106, and ALA258 on MMP1 fulfilled potential communicating anchor with ellagic acid, 5α, 9α-dihydroxymatrine, and leachianone g via hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction, respectively. Conclusions. The comprehensive outcomes uncover differences and linkages between six herbs against viral myocarditis through component and target analysis, fostering development of drugs.
Condition-Specific Molecular Network Analysis Revealed That Flagellar Proteins Are Involved in Electron Transfer Processes of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3
Because of the ability to metabolize a large number of electron acceptors such as nitrate, nitrite, fumarate, and metal oxides, Shewanella species have attracted much attention in recent years. Generally, the use of these electron acceptors is mainly achieved through electron transfer proteins and their interactions which will dynamically change across different environmental conditions in cells. Therefore, functional analysis of condition-specific molecular networks can reveal biological information on electron transfer processes. By integrating expression data and molecular networks, we constructed condition-specific molecular networks for Shewanella piezotolerans WP3. We then identified condition-specific key genes and studied their potential functions with an emphasis on their roles in electron transfer processes. Functional module analysis showed that different flagellar assembly modules appeared under these conditions and suggested that flagellar proteins are important for these conditions. We also identified the electron transfer modules underlying these various environmental conditions. The present results could help with screening electron transfer genes and understanding electron transfer processes under various environmental conditions for the Shewanella species.
The Identification of Childhood Asthma Progression-Related lncRNAs and mRNAs Suitable as Biomarkers Using Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis
Background. Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease in children, seriously affecting children’s health and growth. This bioinformatics study aimed to identify potential RNA candidates closely associated with childhood asthma development within current gene databases. Methods. GSE65204 and GSE19187 datasets were screened and downloaded from the NCBI GEO database. Differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs (DE-lncRNAs) and mRNAs (DE-mRNAs) were identified using the Bioconductor limma package in R, and these DE-mRNAs were used to perform biological process (BP) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses. Thereafter, weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) was utilized to screen the modules directly related to childhood asthma, and a coexpression network of DE-lncRNAs and DE-mRNAs was built. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. Results. In total, 7 DE-lncRNAs and 1060 DE-mRNAs, as well as 7 DE-lncRNAs and 1027 DE-mRNAs, were identified in GSE65204 and GSE19187, respectively. After comparison, 336 overlapping genes had the same trend of expression, including 2 overlapped DE-lncRNAs and 334 overlapped DE-mRNAs. These overlapped DE-mRNAs were enriched in 28 BP and 12 KEGG pathways. Eleven modules were obtained in GSE65204, and it was found that the purple, black, and yellow modules were significantly positively correlated with asthma development. Subsequently, a coexpression network including 63 DE-mRNAs and 2 DE-lncRNAs was built, and five KEGG pathways, containing 8 genes, were found to be directly associated with childhood asthma. The PCA further verified these results. Conclusion. LncRNAs LINC01559 and SNHG8 and mRNAs VWF, LAMB3, LAMA4, CAV1, ALDH1A3, SMOX, GNG4, and PPARG were identified as biomarkers associated with the progression of childhood asthma.
Association between the PLTP rs4810479 SNP and Serum Lipid Traits in the Chinese Maonan and Han Populations
The association between the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) gene rs4810479 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels is largely unknown. This investigation aimed to evaluate the relationship between the PLTP rs4810479 SNP, several environmental risk factors, and serum lipid parameters in the Chinese Maonan and Han nationalities. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, gel electrophoresis, and direct sequencing were employed to determine the PLTP rs4810479 genotypes in 633 Maonan and 646 Han participants. The frequencies of CC, CT, and TT genotypes and the C allele were different between Maonan and Han groups (29.07%, 53.08%, 17.85%, and 55.61% vs. 35.60%, 49.70%, 14.70%, and 60.45%, respectively, ). The C allele carriers in the Maonan group had higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than the C allele noncarriers, but this finding was only found in Maonan males but not in females. The C allele carriers in Han males had lower total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than the C allele noncarriers. Serum lipid profiles were also affected by several traditional cardiovascular risk factors in both populations. There might be an ethnic- and/or sex-specific association between the PLTP rs4810479 SNP and serum lipid traits.