Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2011, Article ID 265093, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/265093
Review Article

Toll-Like Receptors in Secondary Obstructive Cholangiopathy

Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, 44340 JAL, Mexico

Received 1 June 2011; Revised 16 August 2011; Accepted 22 August 2011

Academic Editor: A. Castells

Copyright © 2011 A. G. Miranda-Díaz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. Harada, Y. Sato, K. Isse, H. Ikeda, and Y. Nakanuma, “Induction of innate immune response and absence of subsequent tolerance to dsRNA in biliary epithelial cells relate to the pathogenesis of biliary atresia,” Liver International, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 614–621, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. Ungaro, M. T. Abreu, and M. Fukata, “Practical techniques for detection of Toll-like receptor-4 in the human intestine,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 517, pp. 345–361, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. D. L. Ramos, N. E. Heluy-Neto, R. A. Ribeiro, S. H. Ferreira, and F. Q. Cunha, “Neutrophil migration induced by IL-8-activated mast cells is mediated by CINC-1,” Cytokine, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 214–223, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. Harada and Y. Nakanuma, “Biliary innate immunity: function and modulation,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2010, Article ID 373878, pp. 1–9, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. M. Otte, E. Cario, and D. K. Podolsky, “Mechanisms of cross hyporesponsiveness to Toll-like receptor bacterial ligands in intestinal epithelial cells,” Gastroenterology, vol. 126, no. 4, pp. 1054–1070, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. Harada, K. Isse, Y. Sato, S. Ozaki, and Y. Nakanuma, “Endotoxin tolerance in human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells is induced by upregulation of IRAK-M,” Liver International, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 935–942, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. Medzhitov and C. A. Janeway, “Decoding the patterns of self and nonself by the innate immune system,” Science, vol. 296, no. 5566, pp. 298–300, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Aderem and R. J. Ulevitch, “Toll-like receptors in the induction of the innate immune response,” Nature, vol. 406, no. 6797, pp. 782–787, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. A. Sánchez-Zauco, S. Giono-Cerezo, and C. Maldonado-Bernal, “Toll-like receptors, pathogenesis and immune response to Helicobacter pylori,” Salud Publica de Mexico, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 447–454, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. G. Szabo, A. Dolganiuc, and P. Mandrekar, “Pattern recognition receptors: a contemporary view on liver diseases,” Hepatology, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 287–298, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. Lien and R. R. Ingalls, “Toll-like receptors,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. S1–S11, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Ozinsky, D. M. Underhill, J. D. Fontenot et al., “The repertoire for pattern recognition of pathogens by the innate immune system is defined by cooperation between Toll-like receptors,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 97, no. 25, pp. 13766–13771, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Farhat, S. Riekenberg, H. Heine et al., “Heterodimerization of TLR2 with TLR1 or TLR6 expands the ligand spectrum but does not lead to differential signaling,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 692–701, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Akira, S. Uematsu, and O. Takeuchi, “Pathogen recognition and innate immunity,” Cell, vol. 124, no. 4, pp. 783–801, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. Xu, H. Liu, and M. Komai-Koma, “Direct and indirect role of Toll-like receptors in T cell mediated immunity,” Cellular and Molecular Immunology, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 239–246, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. A. Rivera, L. Gaskin, M. Allman et al., “Toll-like receptor-2 deficiency enhances non-alcoholic steatohepatitis,” BMC Gastroenterology, vol. 10, article 52, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Y. Bulut, E. Faure, L. Thomas, O. Equils, and M. Arditi, “Cooperation of Toll-like receptor 2 and 6 for cellular activation by soluble tuberculosis factor and Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein a lipoprotein: role of Toll-interacting protein and IL-1 receptor signaling molecules in Toll-like receptor 2 signaling,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 167, no. 2, pp. 987–994, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. O. Takeuchi, S. Sato, T. Horiuchi et al., “Cutting edge: role of Toll-like receptor 1 in mediating immune response to microbial lipoproteins,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 169, no. 1, pp. 10–14, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. Iha, T. Omatsu, S. Watanabe et al., “Molecular cloning and expression analysis of bat toll-like receptors 3, 7 and 9,” Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 217–220, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Visintin, A. Mazzoni, J. A. Spitzer, and D. M. Segal, “Secreted MD-2 is a large polymeric protein that efficiently confers lipopolysaccharide sensitivity to toll-like receptor 4,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 98, no. 21, pp. 12156–12161, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. J. C. Chow, D. W. Young, D. T. Golenbock, W. J. Christ, and F. Gusovsky, “Toll-like receptor-4 mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced signal transduction,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 274, no. 16, pp. 10689–10692, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Guo and S. L. Friedman, “Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in liver injury and hepatic fibrogénesis,” Fibrogenesis Tissue Repair, vol. 21, no. 3, p. 21, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  23. A. Mencin, J. Kluwe, and R. F. Schwabe, “Toll-like receptors as targets in chronic liver diseases,” Gut, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 704–720, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. J. Posadas, V. Caz, I. Caballero et al., “Effects of mannoprotein E1 in liquid diet on inflammatory response and TLR5 expression in the gut of rats infected by Salmonella typhimurium,” BMC Gastroenterology, vol. 10, article 58, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. H. Chuang and R. J. Ulevitch, “Cloning and characterization of a sub-family of human Toll-like receptors: hTLR7, hTLR8 and hTLR9,” European Cytokine Network, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 372–378, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. E. Guicciardi and G. J. Gores, “Apoptosis as a mechanism for liver disease progression,” Seminars in Liver Disease, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 402–410, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. U. Hasan, C. Chaffois, C. Gaillard et al., “Human TLR10 is a functional receptor, expressed by B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, which activates gene transcription through MyD88,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 174, no. 5, pp. 2942–2950, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. U. Hasan, C. Chaffois, C. Gaillard et al., “Human TLR10 is a functional receptor, expressed by B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, which activates gene transcription through MyD88,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 174, no. 5, pp. 2942–2950, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. Honda, A. Takaoka, and T. Taniguchi, “Type I inteferon gene induction by the interferon regulatory factor family of transcription factors,” Immunity, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 349–360, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. I. N. Crispe and A. E. Bigorgne, “TLRs in hepatic cellular crosstalk,” Gastroenterology Research and Practice, Article ID 618260, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. K. Hiramatsu, K. Harada, K. Tsuneyama et al., “Amplification and sequence analysis of partial bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene in gallbladder bile from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 9–18, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Liu, D. J. Gallo, A. M. Green et al., “Role of toll-like receptors in changes in gene expression and NF-κB activation in mouse hepatocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 70, no. 7, pp. 3433–3442, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Nishimura and S. Naito, “Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiles of human toll-like receptors and related genes,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 886–892, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. H. W. Harris, S. E. Brady, and J. H. Rapp, “Hepatic endosomal trafficking of lipoprotein-bound endotoxin in rats,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 188–195, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. Uhrig, R. Banafsche, M. Kremer et al., “Development and functional consequences of LPS tolerance in sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 626–633, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Tsung, S. L. McCoy, J. R. Klune, D. A. Geller, T. R. Billiar, and S. H. Hefeneider, “A novel inhibitory peptide of toll-like receptor signaling limits lipopolysaccharide-induced production of inflammatory mediators and enhances survival in mice,” Shock, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 364–369, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. E. Seki, S. De Minicis, C. H. Österreicher et al., “TLR4 enhances TGF-β signaling and hepatic fibrosis,” Nature Medicine, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1324–1332, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. Yokoyama, A. Komori, M. Nakamura et al., “Human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells function in innate immunity by producing IL-6 and IL-8 via the TLR4-NF-κB and -MAPK signaling pathways,” Liver International, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 467–476, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. K. Jagavelu, C. Routray, U. Shergill, S. P. O'Hara, W. Faubion, and V. H. Shah, “Endothelial cell toll-like receptor 4 regulates fibrosis-associated angiogenesis in the liver,” Hepatology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 590–601, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. Guo, F. Zheng, F. Hong et al., “Functional linkage of cirrhosis-predictive single nucleotide polymorphisms of toll-like receptor 4 to hepatic stellate cell responses,” Hepatology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 960–968, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. H. Huang, M. L. Shiffman, S. Friedman et al., “A 7 gene signature identifies the risk of developing cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C,” Hepatology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 297–306, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Radaeva, R. Sun, B. Jaruga, V. T. Nguyen, Z. Tian, and B. Gao, “Natural killer cells ameliorate liver fibrosis by killing activated stellate cells in NKG2D-dependent and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-dependent manners,” Gastroenterology, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 435–452, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. W. I. Jeong, O. Park, S. Radaeva, and B. Gao, “STAT1 inhibits liver fibrosis in mice by inhibiting stellate cell proliferation and stimulating NK cell cytotoxicity,” Hepatology, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 1441–1451, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. V. Krizhanovsky, M. Yon, R. A. Dickins et al., “Senescence of activated stellate cells limits liver fibrosis,” Cell, vol. 134, no. 4, pp. 657–667, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. E. Seki, H. Tsutsui, Y. Iimuro et al., “Contribution of Toll-like receptor/myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling to murine liver regeneration,” Hepatology, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 443–450, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. B. John and I. N. Crispe, “TLR-4 regulates CD8+ T cell trapping in the liver,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 175, no. 3, pp. 1643–1650, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. K. Harada, K. Isse, and Y. Nakanuma, “Interferon γ accelerates NF-κB activation of biliary epithelial cells induced by Toll-like receptor and ligand interaction,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 184–190, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. K. Harada, Y. Sato, K. Itatsu et al., “Innate immune response to double-stranded RNA in biliary epithelial cells is associated with the pathogenesis of biliary atresia,” Hepatology, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1146–1154, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. B. Gao and S. Yin, “Toll-like receptor 3 in liver diseases,” Gastroenterology Research and Practice, vol. 2010, pp. 1–6, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. H. Yu and S. D. Wu, “Activation of TLR-4 and liver injury via NF-kappa B in rat with acute cholangitis,” Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Diseases International, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 185–191, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. D. Wu, H. Yu, and J. M. Sun, “Bacteriological and electron microscopic examination of primary intrahepatic stones,” Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Diseases International, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 228–231, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. W. Z. Zhang, Y. S. Chen, J. W. Wang, and X. R. Chen, “Early diagnosis and treatment of severe acute cholangitis,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 150–152, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. K. Harada, S. Ohira, K. Isse et al., “Lipopolysaccharide activates nuclear factor-κB through Toll-like receptors and related molecules in cultured biliary epithelial cells,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 83, no. 11, pp. 1657–1667, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. P. Berche, “Bacterial aggression,” Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 270–275, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. T. Saito, K. Shinozaki, T. Matsunaga et al., “Lack of evidence for reovirus infection in tissues from patients with biliary atresia and congenital dilatation of the bile duct,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 203–211, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. N. Al-Masri, P. Flemming, B. Rodeck, M. Melter, J. Leonhardt, and C. Petersen, “Expression of the interferon-induced Mx proteins in biliary atresia,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1139–1143, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. Rauschenfels, M. Krassmann, A. N. Al-Masri et al., “Incidence of hepatotropic viruses in biliary atresia,” European Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 168, no. 4, pp. 469–476, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. A. Jain, J. Reyes, R. Kashyap et al., “Long-term survival after liver transplantation in 4,000 consecutive patients at a single center,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 232, no. 4, pp. 490–500, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. Y. H. Huang, M. H. Chou, Y. Y. Du et al., “Expression of toll-like receptors and type 1 interferon specific protein MxA in biliary atresia,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 66–74, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. K. Harada, S. Ozaki, N. Kono et al., “Frequent molecular identification of Campylobacter but not Helicobacter genus in bile and biliary epithelium in hepatolithiasis,” Journal of Pathology, vol. 193, no. 2, pp. 218–223, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. K. A. Tazi, J. J. Quioc, V. Saada, A. Bezeaud, D. Lebrec, and R. Moreau, “Upregulation of TNF-alpha production signaling pathways in monocytes from patients with advanced cirrhosis: possible role of Akt and IRAK-M,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 280–289, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. F. Marra, S. Aleffi, S. Galastri, and A. Provenzano, “Mononuclear cells in liver fibrosis,” Seminars in Immunopathology, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 345–358, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. T. Nagano, K. Yamamoto, S. Matsumoto et al., “Cytokine profile in the liver of primary biliary cirrhosis,” Journal of Clinical Immunology, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 422–427, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. G. Jego, A. K. Palucka, J. P. Blanck, C. Chalouni, V. Pascual, and J. Banchereau, “Plasmacytoid dendritic cells induce plasma cell differentiation through type I interferon and interleukin 6,” Immunity, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 225–234, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. P. Butler, J. M. T. Hamilton-Miller, N. McIntyre, and A. K. Burroughs, “Natural history of bacteriuria in women with primary biliary cirrhosis and the effect of antimicrobial therapy in symptomatic and asymptomatic groups,” Gut, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 931–934, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. M. R. Yeaman and N. Y. Yount, “Mechanisms of antimicrobial peptide action and resistance,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 27–55, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  67. S. Fletcher, K. Steffy, and D. Averett, “Masked oral prodrugs of toll-like receptor 7 agonists: A new approach for the treatment of infectious disease,” Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 702–708, 2006. View at Google Scholar