Figure 5: Dual innervation of the oesophagus. The oesophagus is dually innervated by the vagal and spinal nerves. The spinal nerves enter the central nervous system (CNS) through the dorsal root ganglion of the spinal cord from C1 to L2. The vagal afferents travel with the main branch of the vagal nerve, primarily entering the CNS via the nodose and jugular ganglia of the vagal nerve and synapsing in the nucleus of the solitary tract.