Figure 7: Surgical resection after fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS). (a) The top row are representative pre- and postoperative images of a mouse specimen from the bright-field surgery (BLS) group. The tumors were labeled with RFP. A tumor reduction of only 77% was achieved in the BLS group. The bottom row images are representative pre- and postoperative images of a mouse specimen from the FGS group. A significant improvement in tumor reduction was achieved in this group (98.9%, ). A complete surgical resection of pancreatic tumor with negative surgical margins was achieved in this mouse without requiring significant resection of the pancreas. (b) Representative pre- and postoperative images of a mouse from the BLS group (top panel) and the FGS group (bottom panel). The enhanced ability to visualize and identify tumor margins under fluorescence-guidance permitted a more complete resection. The tumors were labeled with GFP. All mice in the FGS group underwent an R0 resection while only 58% of mice in the BLS group had no evidence of residual fluorescent tumor on postoperative images (arrows in right upper panel) () [4, 5].