Figure 2: Proposed approach for identification of novel biomarkers for the GERD-BE-AEC sequence. Based on theheterogeneous and patient-specific progression sequence from BE to EAC, the figure indicates the disease stages and mandatory (histology, IHC) and supplementary potential methods for investigation of putative biomarkers for progression, prediction, and prognosis. These data possibly result in an evidence-based stratification of patients for various available therapies (X–Z) based on a rational selection and evaluation of specific biomarkers. Abbreviations. Esophageal adenocarcinoma: AEC; dysplasia: Dys; fluorescence in-situ hybridization: FISH; gastro-esophageal reflux disease: GERD; immunohistochemistry: IHC.