Table 4: Essential steps to the laparoscopic Nissen. See Figures 13 for images of these steps.

Gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) mobilization with identification of main vagi trunks
Hiatal dissection and creation of retroesophageal window
Division of short gastric vessels/gastrosplenic ligament
Crural approximation
Creation of a 360° wrap with a bougie in place