Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2014, Article ID 847539, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/847539
Review Article

Chronic Kidney Disease and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease—Is There a Link?

1Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, University Hospital Center Rijeka, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
2Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Center Rijeka, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia

Received 19 December 2013; Accepted 4 February 2014; Published 6 March 2014

Academic Editor: Gyorgy Baffy

Copyright © 2014 L. Orlić et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Coresh, B. C. Astor, T. Greene, G. Eknoyan, and A. S. Levey, “Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and decreased kidney function in the adult US population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. F. Locatelli, P. Pozzoni, F. Tentori, and L. Del Vecchio, “Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. vii2–vii9, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. A. Hamad, A. A. Khalil, V. Connolly et al., “Relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and kidney function: a communication between two organs that needs further exploration,” Arab Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 13, pp. 161–165, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  4. D. J. De Jager, D. C. Grootendorst, K. J. Jager et al., “Cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality among patients starting dialysis,” JAMA, vol. 302, no. 16, pp. 1782–1789, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. D. Sniderman, A. Solhpour, A. Alam, K. Williams, and J. A. Sloand, “Cardiovascular death in dialysis patients: lessons we can learn from AURORA,” Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 335–340, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. Vanholder, Z. Massy, A. Argiles et al., “Chronic kidney disease as cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 20, pp. 1048–1056, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. I. Mikolasevic, S. Racki, Zaputovic l, V. Lukenda, S. Milic, and L. Orlic, “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); a new risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events in dialysis patients,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 82, pp. 205–208, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  8. N. Chalasani, Z. Younossi, J. E. Lavine et al., “The diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease, American College of Gastroenterology, and the American Gastroenterological Association,” Hepatology, vol. 55, pp. 2005–2023, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  9. G. C. Farrell and C. Z. Larter, “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: from steatosis to cirrhosis,” Hepatology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. S99–S112, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. K. Dowman, J. W. Tomlinson, and P. N. Newsome, “Systematic review: the diagnosis and staging of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 525–540, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. Q. Starley, C. J. Calcagno, and S. A. Harrison, “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma: a weighty connection,” Hepatology, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 1820–1832, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. Milic and D. Stimac, “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis: epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and treatment,” Digestive Diseases, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 158–162, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. G. Targher and G. Arcaro, “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and increased risk of cardiovascular disease,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 191, no. 2, pp. 235–240, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. H. Kim and Z. M. Younossi, “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome,” Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, vol. 75, no. 10, pp. 721–728, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. I. Mikolasevic, S. Racki, V. Lukenda, M. Pavletic-Persic, S. Milic, and L. Orlic, “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; a part of the metabolic syndrome in the renal transplant recipient and possible cause of an allograft dysfunction,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 82, pp. 36–39, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  16. I. Mikolasevic, S. Racki, I. Bubic, I. Jelic, D. Stimac, and L. Orlic, “Chronic kidney disease and nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease proven by transient elastography,” Kidney and Blood Pressure Research, vol. 37, pp. 305–310, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  17. G. Targher, M. Chonchol, G. Zoppini, C. Abaterusso, and E. Bonora, “Risk of chronic kidney disease in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: is there a link?” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 1020–1029, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. J. Armstrong, L. A. Adams, A. Canbay, and W. K. Syn, “Extrahepatic complications of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Hepatology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. B. R. Johns, A. C. Pao, and S. H. Kim, “Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and kidney function in non-diabetic individuals,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 1410–1415, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. M. Ferraro, A. Lupo, T. Yabarek et al., “Metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and risk for chronic kidney disease in an Italian cohort: analysis of the INCIPE study,” Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 381–388, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. G. Thomas, A. R. Sehgal, S. R. Kashyap, T. R. Srinivas, J. P. Kirwan, and S. D. Navaneethan, “Metabolic syndrome and kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 2364–2373, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Beddhu, P. L. Kimmel, N. Ramkumar, and A. K. Cheung, “Associations of metabolic syndrome with inflammation in CKD: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III),” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 577–586, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Pham, C. Robinson-Cohen, M. L. Biggs et al., “Chronic kidney disease, Insulin resistance, and incident diabetes in older adults,” Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 588–594, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H.-T. Cheng, J.-W. Huang, C.-K. Chiang, C.-J. Yen, K.-Y. Hung, and K.-D. Wu, “Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance as risk factors for development of chronic kidney disease and rapid decline in renal function in elderly,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 1268–1276, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. Targher, L. Bertolini, S. Rodella et al., “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is independently associated with an increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease and proliferative/laser-treated retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients,” Diabetologia, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 444–450, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. Targher, L. Bertolini, M. Chonchol et al., “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is independently associated with an increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease and retinopathy in type 1 diabetic patients,” Diabetologia, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 1341–1348, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. T. Hwang, Y. K. Cho, J. W. Yun et al., “Impact of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease on microalbuminuria in patients with prediabetes and diabetes,” Internal Medicine Journal, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 437–442, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. Targher, J. Kendrick, G. Smits, and M. Chonchol, “Relationship between serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and chronic kidney disease in the United States adult population. Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2006,” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 583–590, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. E. Yun, C. Y. Shin, Y. S. Yoon, and H. S. Park, “Elevated alanine aminotransferase levels predict mortality from cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Koreans,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 205, no. 2, pp. 533–537, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. S. Lee, J. C. Evans, S. J. Robins et al., “Gamma-glutamyltransferase and metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and mortality risk. The Framingham Heart study,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 27, pp. 127–133, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  31. Y. Yilmaz, Y. O. Alahdab, O. Yonal et al., “Microalbuminuria in nondiabetic patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: association with liver fibrosis,” Metabolism, vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 1327–1330, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Manco, P. Ciampalini, R. DeVito, A. Vania, M. Cappa, and V. Nobili, “Albuminuria and insulin resistance in children with biopsy proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,” Pediatric Nephrology, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 1211–1217, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. G. Targher, L. Bertolini, S. Rodella, G. Lippi, G. Zoppini, and M. Chonchol, “Relationship between kidney function and liver histology in subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis,” Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 2166–2171, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. G. Targher, M. Chonchol, L. Bertolini et al., “Increased risk of CKD among type 2 diabetics with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1564–1570, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. Ryu, Y. Chang, D.-I. Kim, W. S. Kim, and B.-S. Suh, “γ-glutamyltransferase as a predictor of chronic kidney disease in nonhypertensive and nondiabetic Korean men,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 71–77, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Sasso, M. Beaugrand, V. de Ledinghen et al., “Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP): a novel VCTE guided ultrasonic attenuation measurement for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis: preliminary study and validation in a cohort of patients with chronic liver disease from various causes,” Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 1825–1835, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. F. Kronenberg, “Emerging risk factors and markers of chronic kidney disease progression,” Nature Reviews Nephrology, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 677–689, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. H. Ix and K. Sharma, “Mechanisms linking obesity, chronic kidney disease, and fatty liver disease: the roles of fetuin-A, adiponectin, and AMPK,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 406–412, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Lonardo, C. Carani, N. Carulli, and P. Loria, “'Endocrine NAFLD' a hormonocentric perspective of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease pathogenesis,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 1196–1207, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. E. F. Georgescu, “Angiotensin receptor blockers in the treatment of NASH/NAFLD: could they be a first-class option?” Advances in Therapy, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 1141–1174, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus