Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2015, Article ID 287348, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/287348
Review Article

Role of Gut Barrier Function in the Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052, China

Received 10 February 2015; Accepted 28 March 2015

Academic Editor: Haruhiko Sugimura

Copyright © 2015 Xin Dai and Bangmao Wang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. Angulo, “Medical progress: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 346, no. 16, pp. 1221–1231, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. G. Tiniakos, M. B. Vos, and E. M. Brunt, “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: pathology and pathogenesis,” Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease, vol. 5, pp. 145–171, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. C. Farrell and C. Z. Larter, “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: from steatosis to cirrhosis,” Hepatology, vol. 43, no. 2, supplement 1, pp. S99–S112, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. V. Racanelli and B. Rehermann, “The liver as an immunological organ,” Hepatology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. S54–S62, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. L. Balmer, E. Slack, A. de Gottardi et al., “The liver may act as a firewall mediating mutualism between the host and its gut commensal microbiota,” Science Translational Medicine, vol. 6, no. 237, Article ID 237ra66, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. J. M. Ridlon, D. J. Kang, P. B. Hylemon, and J. S. Bajaj, “Bile acids and the gut microbiome,” Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 332–338, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Å. V. Keita and J. D. Söderholm, “Barrier dysfunction and bacterial uptake in the follicle-associated epithelium of ileal Crohn's disease,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1258, no. 1, pp. 125–134, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. Scaldaferri, M. Pizzoferrato, V. Gerardi, L. Lopetuso, and A. Gasbarrini, “The gut barrier: new acquisitions and therapeutic approaches,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 46, supplement, pp. S12–S17, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. Miele, V. Valenza, G. La Torre et al., “Increased intestinal permeability and tight junction alterations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Hepatology, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1877–1887, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Rahimi, N. E. Daryani, H. Ghofrani et al., “The prevalence of celiac disease among patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Iran,” Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 300–304, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. U. Navaneethan, V. Jayanthi, and P. Mohan, “Pathogenesis of cholangitis in obstructive jaundice-revisited,” Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 97–104, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. Szabo, “Gut-liver axis in alcoholic liver disease,” Gastroenterology, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 30–36, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. B. Shao, M. Lu, S. C. Katz et al., “A host lipase detoxifies bacterial lipopolysaccharides in the liver and spleen,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 282, no. 18, pp. 13726–13735, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. Jirillo, D. Caccavo, T. Magrone et al., “The role of the liver in the response to LPS: experimental and clinical findings,” Journal of Endotoxin Research, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 319–327, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. F. Hofmann, “Bile acids: the good, the bad, and the ugly,” News in Physiological Sciences, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 24–29, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Begley, C. G. M. Gahan, and C. Hill, “The interaction between bacteria and bile,” FEMS Microbiology Reviews, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 625–651, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. V. Volynets, A. Spruss, G. Kanuri, S. Wagnerberger, S. C. Bischoff, and I. Bergheim, “Protective effect of bile acids on the onset of fructose-induced hepatic steatosis in mice,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 3414–3424, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. T. Claudel, E. Sturm, H. Duez et al., “Bile acid-activated nuclear receptor FXR suppresses apolipoprotein A-I transcription via a negative FXR response element,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 109, no. 7, pp. 961–971, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. N. L. Urizar, D. H. Dowhan, and D. D. Moore, “The farnesoid X-activated receptor mediates bile acid activation of phospholipid transfer protein gene expression,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 275, no. 50, pp. 39313–39317, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. I. V. Martin, J. Schmitt, A. Minkenberg et al., “Bile acid retention and activation of endogenous hepatic farnesoid-X-receptor in the pathogenesis of fatty liver disease in ob/ob-mice,” Biological Chemistry, vol. 391, no. 12, pp. 1441–1449, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. L. Pumbwe, C. A. Skilbeck, V. Nakano, M. J. Avila-Campos, R. M. F. Piazza, and H. M. Wexler, “Bile salts enhance bacterial co-aggregation, bacterial-intestinal epithelial cell adhesion, biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance of Bacteroides fragilis,” Microbial Pathogenesis, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 78–87, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. Miura, E. Seki, H. Ohnishi, and D. A. Brenner, “Role of toll-like receptors and their downstream molecules in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Gastroenterology Research and Practice, vol. 2010, Article ID 362847, 9 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M.-F. Tsan and B. Gao, “Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 514–519, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. Shi, M. V. Kokoeva, K. Inouye, I. Tzameli, H. Yin, and J. S. Flier, “TLR4 links innate immunity and fatty acid-induced insulin resistance,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 116, no. 11, pp. 3015–3025, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Erridge and N. J. Samani, “Saturated fatty acids do not directly stimulate toll-like receptor signaling,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 1944–1949, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. Kawai and S. Akira, “The role of pattern-recognition receptors in innate immunity: update on toll-like receptors,” Nature Immunology, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 373–384, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. W. Ferrante Jr., “Obesity-induced inflammation: a metabolic dialogue in the language of inflammation,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 262, no. 4, pp. 408–414, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. Erridge, “Diet, commensals and the intestine as sources of pathogen-associated molecular patterns in atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 216, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. C. Alverdy and E. Aoys, “The effect of dexamethasone and endotoxin administration on biliary IgA and bacterial adherence,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 450–454, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. O. Pabst, “New concepts in the generation and functions of IgA,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 821–832, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Li, W. Wu, C. He, Z. Han, and D. Jin, “The protective effect of glutamine on the intestinal mucosa barrier function in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis rats,” Chinese Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 20, pp. 241–244, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  32. S. J. Creely, P. G. McTernan, C. M. Kusminski et al., “Lipopolysaccharide activates an innate immune system response in human adipose tissue in obesity and type 2 diabetes,” The American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 292, no. 3, pp. E740–E747, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P. D. Cani, J. Amar, M. A. Iglesias et al., “Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance,” Diabetes, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 1761–1772, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  34. K. Cope, T. Risby, and A. M. Diehl, “Increased gastrointestinal ethanol production in obese mice: implications for fatty liver disease pathogenesis,” Gastroenterology, vol. 119, no. 5, pp. 1340–1347, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. Nair, K. Cope, T. H. Risby, and A. M. Diehl, “Obesity and female gender increase breath ethanol concentration: potential implications for the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 1200–1204, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M.-E. Dumas, R. H. Barton, A. Toye et al., “Metabolic profiling reveals a contribution of gut microbiota to fatty liver phenotype in insulin-resistant mice,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 103, no. 33, pp. 12511–12516, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. D. Spencer, T. J. Hamp, R. W. Reid, L. M. Fischer, S. H. Zeisel, and A. A. Fodor, “Association between composition of the human gastrointestinal microbiome and development of fatty liver with choline deficiency,” Gastroenterology, vol. 140, no. 3, pp. 976–986, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. H. Frazier, J. K. DiBaise, and C. J. McClain, “Gut microbiota, intestinal permeability, obesity-induced inflammation, and liver injury,” Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 14S–20S, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. J. Turnbaugh, R. E. Ley, M. A. Mahowald, V. Magrini, E. R. Mardis, and J. I. Gordon, “An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest,” Nature, vol. 444, no. 7122, pp. 1027–1031, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. F. Bäckhed, H. Ding, T. Wang et al., “The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 44, pp. 15718–15723, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. N. M. Delzenne and P. D. Cani, “Gut microflora is a key player in host energy homeostasis,” Medecine Sciences, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 505–510, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. Y. Myeong, Y. L. Gha, J.-J. Chung, H. A. Young, H. H. Seung, and B. K. Jae, “Adiponectin increases fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle cells by sequential activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α,” Diabetes, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 2562–2570, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. D. F. Lappin, S. Sherrabeh, and C. Erridge, “Stimulants of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 are elevated in saliva of periodontitis patients compared with healthy subjects,” Journal of Clinical Periodontology, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 318–325, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. Erridge, “Accumulation of stimulants of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR4 in meat products stored at 5°C,” Journal of Food Science, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. H72–H79, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. J. Wigg, I. C. Roberts-Thomson, R. B. Dymock, P. J. McCarthy, R. H. Grose, and A. G. Cummins, “The role of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, intestinal permeability, endotoxaemia, and tumour necrosis factor alpha in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis,” Gut, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 206–211, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. N. Kamada and G. Núñez, “Regulation of the immune system by the resident intestinal bacteria,” Gastroenterology, vol. 146, no. 6, pp. 1477–1488, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. E. Gäbele, K. Dostert, C. Hofmann et al., “DSS induced colitis increases portal LPS levels and enhances hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis in experimental NASH,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 1391–1399, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. G. Paolella, C. Mandato, L. Pierri, M. Poeta, M. Di Stasi, and P. Vajro, “Gut-liver axis and probiotics: their role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 20, no. 42, pp. 15518–15531, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar