Gastroenterology Research and Practice / 2015 / Article / Tab 2

Clinical Study

Outcomes and Risk Factors Associated with Clostridium difficile Diarrhea in Hospitalized Adult Patients

Table 2

Factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection in adult patients with hospital-acquired diarrhea according to univariate logistic regression.

VariableCDI group
()
Control group ()OR (95% CI)P value

Charlson comorbidity index, median (IQR)3.0 (2.0–5.0)2.0 (1.0–5.0)1.68 (0.66–4.24)0.22
HIV infection5 (6.6)15 (20.0)0.28 (0.07–0.89)0.01
Institutionalization1 (1.3)3 (4.0)0.32 (0.006–4.17)0.31
Proton pump inhibitor use53 (70.6)44 (58.6)1.69 (0.81–3.54)0.12
Enteral tube feeding30 (40.0)25 (33.3)1.33 (0.64–2.74)0.39
Cytotoxic chemotherapy in the previous 6 weeks19 (25.3)13 (17.3)1.61 (0.68–3.90)0.23
Hospitalization in the previous 6 months49 (65.3)48 (64.0)1.06 (0.51–2.18)0.86
Gastrointestinal surgery in the previous 30 days7 (9.3)5 (6.6)1.44 (0.37–6.03)0.54
Antibiotic treatment in the previous 30 days73 (97.3)62 (82.6)7.65 (1.61–71.61)0.002
Fever17 (22.6)12 (16.0)1.53 (0.62–3.84)0.30
Lethargy4 (5.3)2 (2.6)2.05 (0.28–23.29)0.40
Dehydration9 (12.0)6 (8.0)1.56 (0.46–5.65)0.41
Tachycardia5 (6.6)3 (4.0)1.71 (0.31–11.41)0.46
Abdominal pain26 (34.6)26 (34.6)1.00 (0.48–2.06)1.00
Abdominal distension24 (32.0)10 (13.3)3.05 (1.26–7.79)0.006
Anorexia6 (8.0)17 (22.6)0.29 (0.09−0.86)0.01
Nausea7 (9.3)14 (18.6)0.44 (0.14–1.28)0.09
Hematochezia6 (8.0)2 (2.6)3.17 (0.54–32.94)0.14
Leukocytosis or leukopenia38 (50.6)27 (36.4)1.78 (0.88–3.63)0.08
Initial serum lactate, mmol/L, median (IQR)1.1 (0.85–2.2)0.75 (0.6–0.95) 0.40 (0.59–1.81)0.10
Initial plasma CPR, mg/L, median (IQR)70.5 (36.0–157.0)80.5 (35.0–141.0)1.001 (0.99–1.006)0.38
Hypoalbuminemia44 (58.6)49 (65.3)1.01 (0.45–2.27)0.96
Presence of fecal leukocytes9 (12.0)3 (4.0)4.35 (1.11–17.05)0.03

Data presented as (%) unless otherwise indicated. CDI: Clostridium difficile infection; CPR: C-reactive protein; OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval; IQR: interquartile range (P25–P75). Initial plasma albumin level < 3 g/dL.

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