Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2015, Article ID 539861, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/539861
Research Article

Dilemmas in Endoscopic Management of Rectal Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Case-Based Discussion

Division of Gastroenterology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA

Received 15 December 2014; Accepted 12 July 2015

Academic Editor: Mala Banerjee

Copyright © 2015 Brian P. Rajca and Mihir S. Wagh. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. Scherübl, “Rectal carcinoids are on the rise: early detection by screening endoscopy,” Endoscopy, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 162–165, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. L. B. Anthony, J. R. Strosberg, D. S. Klimstra et al., “The NANETS consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs): well-differentiated nets of the distal colon and rectum,” Pancreas, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 767–774, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Taghavi, S. N. Jayarajan, B. D. Powers, A. Davey, and A. I. Willis, “Examining rectal carcinoids in the era of screening colonoscopy: a surveillance, epidemiology, and end results analysis,” Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 952–959, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. C. Eggenberger, “Carcinoid and other neuroendocrine tumors of the colon and rectum,” Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 129–134, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. F. T. Bosman, F. Carniero, R. Hruban, and N. Thiese, WHO Classification of Tumours of the Digestive System, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France, 4th edition, 2010.
  6. T. Shimizu, S. Tanaka, K. Haruma et al., “Growth characteristics of rectal carcinoid tumors,” Oncology, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 229–237, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Y. Wang and N. A. Ahmad, “Rectal carcinoids,” Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 529–535, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Kasuga, A. Chino, N. Uragami et al., “Treatment strategy for rectal carcinoids: a clinicopathological analysis of 229 cases at a single cancer institution,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1801–1807, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. I. M. Modlin, K. D. Lye, and M. Kidd, “A 5-decade analysis of 13,715 carcinoid tumors,” Cancer, vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 934–959, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. B. Weinstock, S. C. Ward, N. Harpaz, R. R. P. Warner, S. Itzkowitz, and M. K. Kim, “Clinical and prognostic features of rectal neuroendocrine tumors,” Neuroendocrinology, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 180–187, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. H. Kulke, A. B. Benson III, E. Bergsland et al., “Neuroendocrine tumors: clinical practice guidelines in oncology,” Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 724–764, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. B. Edge, American Joint Committee on Cancer: Cancer Staging Manual, American Cancer Society, New York, NY, USA, 7th edition, 2010.
  13. I. M. Modlin and A. Sandor, “An analysis of 8305 cases of carcinoid tumors,” Cancer, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 813–829, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Holinga, A. Khalid, K. Fasanella, M. Sanders, J. Davison, and K. McGrath, “Metastatic risk of diminutive rectal carcinoid tumors: a need for surveillance rectal ultrasound?” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 913–916, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. Kobayashi, T. Katsumata, S. Yoshizawa et al., “Indications of endoscopic polypectomy for rectal carcinoid tumors and clinical usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography,” Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 285–291, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Soga, “Early-stage carcinoids of the gastrointestinal tract: an analysis of 1914 reported cases,” Cancer, vol. 103, no. 8, pp. 1587–1595, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. Yamagishi, N. Matsubara, M. Noda et al., “Clinicopathological characteristics of rectal carcinoid patients undergoing surgical resection,” Oncology Letters, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 910–914, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. S. Kim, H. Hyuk, B. S. Min, S. H. Baik, K. Y. Lee, and N. K. Kim, “Clinical outcomes for rectal carcinoid tumors according to a new (AJCC 7th edition) TNM staging system: a single institutional analysis of 122 patients,” Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 107, no. 8, pp. 835–841, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. B. N. Fahy, L. H. Tang, D. Klimstra et al., “Carcinoid of the rectum risk stratification (CaRRs): a strategy for preoperative outcome assessment,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1735–1743, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. Konishi, T. Watanabe, J. Kishimoto, K. Kotake, T. Muto, and H. Nagawa, “Prognosis and risk factors of metastasis in colorectal carcinoids: results of a nationwide registry over 15 years,” Gut, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 863–868, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Caplin, A. Sundin, O. Nillson et al., “ENETS Consensus Guidelines for the management of patients with digestive neuroendocrine neoplasms: colorectal neuroendocrine neoplasms,” Neuroendocrinology, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 88–97, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. M. Kim, S. J. Eo, S. G. Shim et al., “Treatment outcomes according to endoscopic treatment modalities for rectal carcinoid tumors,” Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 275–282, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. H. Lee, S. Ja Park, H. Hun Kim et al., “Endoscopic resection for rectal carcinoid tumors: comparision of polypectomy and endoscopic submucosal resection with band ligation,” Clinical Endoscopy, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 89–94, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Z. F. Zhao, N. Zhang, S. R. Ma et al., “A comparative study on endoscopy treatment in rectal carcinoid tumors,” Surgical Laparoscopy Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 260–263, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. K. Niimi, O. Goto, M. Fujishiro et al., “Endoscopic mucosal resection with a ligation device or endoscopic submucosal dissection for rectal carcinoid tumors: an analysis of 24 consecutive cases,” Digestive Endoscopy, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 443–447, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. W. Choi, D. H. Kang, H. W. Kim et al., “Comparison of endoscopic resection therapies for rectal carcinoid tumor: endoscopic submucosal dissection versus endoscopic mucosal resection using band ligation,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 432–436, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus