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Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2015, Article ID 670965, 10 pages
Review Article

CT Appearance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Locoregional Treatments: A Comprehensive Review

1Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27701, USA
2Department of Radiology, Second University of Naples, 80131 Naples, Italy
3Department of Radiology, Monaldi Hospital, 80131 Naples, Italy
4Department of Interventional Radiology, National Cancer Institute, “Fond. Pascale”, 80131 Naples, Italy
5Department of Radiology, UOC San Severo Hospital, 71016 San Severo, Italy

Received 15 June 2015; Revised 9 September 2015; Accepted 14 September 2015

Academic Editor: Mitsuro Kanda

Copyright © 2015 Daniel Marin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health problem worldwide, affecting more than 600,000 new patients per year. Curative treatments are available in a small percentage of patients, while most of them present in stages requiring locoregional treatments such as thermoablation, transarterial chemoembolization, and/or radioembolization. These therapies result in specific imaging features that the general radiologist has to be aware of in order to assess the response to treatment and to correctly manage the follow-up of treated patients. Multiphasic helical computed tomography has become a popular imaging modality for detecting hypervascular tumors and characterizing liver lesions. On this basis, many staging and diagnostic systems have been proposed for evaluating response to all different existing strategies. Radiofrequencies and microwaves generate thermoablation of tumors, and transarterial chemoembolization exploits the double effect of the locoregional administration of drugs and embolizing particles. Eventually radioembolization uses a beta-emitting isotope to induce necrosis. Therefore, the aim of this comprehensive review is to analyze and compare CT imaging appearance of HCC after various locoregional treatments, with regard to specific indications for all possible procedures.