Gastroenterology Research and Practice / 2015 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Hypomagnesemia Induced by Long-Term Treatment with Proton-Pump Inhibitors

Table 2

Case-control, cross-sectional studies addressing the potential of proton-pump inhibitors to modulate the metabolism of magnesium. Reports disclosing a significant relationship between use of these drugs and metabolism of magnesium are bold.

ReferenceCountryPatientsResults

Alhosaini et al. [5]USA62 hemodialysis patientsUse of proton-pump inhibitors was associated () with hypomagnesemia

Biyik et al. [6]Turkey238 outpatientsMagnesemia was similar in users of proton-pump inhibitors () and nonusers ()

Danziger et al. [7]USA11,490 patients admitted to an intensive care unit Hypomagnesemia was disclosed exclusively () in patients concurrently treated with both proton-pump inhibitors and diuretics. Use of histamine type-2 receptor antagonists (with or without diuretics) was not associated with hypomagnesemia

El-Charabaty et al. [8]USA262 intensive care patients with cardiac arrhythmiasUse of proton-pump inhibitors prior to admission was associated with tendency to hypomagnesemia ()

Faulhaber et al. [9]Brazil151 internal medicine patientsNo cases of hypomagnesemia were detected on treatment with proton-pump inhibitors

Gau et al. [10]USA487 inpatientsUse of proton-pump inhibitors was associated with lower magnesemia () and with a 2.5-fold increased risk of hypomagnesemia

Kim et al. [11]Korea1356 patientsMagnesemia was lower () in users of proton-pump inhibitors () than in nonusers ( = 1,244). Concurrent treatment with cisplatin () or carboplatin () further exacerbated hypomagnesemia

Koulouridis et al. [12]USA804 well-matched inpatientsUse of proton-pump inhibitors prior to admission was not associated with hypomagnesemia

Lindner et al. [13]Switzerland5,118 emergency department patientsHypomagnesemia was significantly () associated with the use of proton-pump inhibitor or both proton-pump inhibitors and diuretics

Markovits et al. [14]Israel95,205 outpatientsUsers of proton-pump inhibitors ( = 22,458) presented frequently with hypomagnesemia (). Use of histamine type-2 receptor antagonists was not associated with hypomagnesemia

Sumukadas et al. [15]United Kingdom196 elderly unit patientsMagnesemia was lower () in users of proton-pump inhibitors with poor renal function

Van Ende et al. [16]Belgium512 renal transplant recipientsUse of proton-pump inhibitors was not a predictor of hypomagnesemia

William et al. [17]USA278 outpatientsMagnesiuria was reduced () in users of proton-pump inhibitors. Diuretics did not modulate the effect of proton-pump inhibitors  on magnesiuria

Zipursky et al. [18]Canada1,830 inpatientsPatients admitted with hypomagnesemia were frequently (odds ratio = 1.43) on proton-pump inhibitors. Diuretics further exacerbated the tendency to hypomagnesemia (odds ratio = 1.73). Use of histamine type-2 receptor antagonists was not associated with hypomagnesemia