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Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2016, Article ID 2632703, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2632703
Review Article

Role of S100 Proteins in Colorectal Carcinogenesis

12nd Department of Internal Medicine-Gastroenterology, Charles University in Praha, Faculty of Medicine at Hradec Kralove, University Teaching Hospital, Sokolska 581, 500 05 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
2Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, 67-73 Riding House Street, London W1W 7EJ, UK

Received 20 August 2015; Revised 22 November 2015; Accepted 29 November 2015

Academic Editor: Bisweswar Nandi

Copyright © 2016 Paula Moravkova et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The family of S100 proteins represents 25 relatively small (9–13 kD) calcium binding proteins. These proteins possess a broad spectrum of important intracellular and extracellular functions. Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in men (after lung and prostate cancer) and the second most frequent cancer in women (after breast cancer) worldwide. S100 proteins are involved in the colorectal carcinogenesis through different mechanisms: they enable proliferation, invasion, and migration of the tumour cells; furthermore, S100 proteins increase angiogenesis and activate NF-κβ signaling pathway, which plays a key role in the molecular pathogenesis especially of colitis-associated carcinoma. The expression of S100 proteins in the cancerous tissue and serum levels of S100 proteins might be used as a precise diagnostic and prognostic marker in patients with suspected or already diagnosed colorectal neoplasia. Possibly, in the future, S100 proteins will be a therapeutic target for tailored anticancer therapy.