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Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2016, Article ID 2862173, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2862173
Review Article

The Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Interplay between Diet, Gut Microbiota, and Genetic Background

1Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA
2Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2H7
3Department of General Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong Science & Technology University, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, China
4Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40208, USA
5Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Texas A&M University, Houston, TX 77843, USA

Received 26 January 2016; Accepted 14 April 2016

Academic Editor: Greger Lindberg

Copyright © 2016 Jinsheng Yu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the world, and it comprises a spectrum of hepatic abnormalities from simple hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. While the pathogenesis of NAFLD remains incompletely understood, a multihit model has been proposed that accommodates causal factors from a variety of sources, including intestinal and adipose proinflammatory stimuli acting on the liver simultaneously. Prior cellular and molecular studies of patient and animal models have characterized several common pathogenic mechanisms of NAFLD, including proinflammation cytokines, lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In recent years, gut microbiota has gained much attention, and dysbiosis is recognized as a crucial factor in NAFLD. Moreover, several genetic variants have been identified through genome-wide association studies, particularly rs738409 (Ile748Met) in PNPLA3 and rs58542926 (Glu167Lys) in TM6SF2, which are critical risk alleles of the disease. Although a high-fat diet and inactive lifestyles are typical risk factors for NAFLD, the interplay between diet, gut microbiota, and genetic background is believed to be more important in the development and progression of NAFLD. This review summarizes the common pathogenic mechanisms, the gut microbiota relevant mechanisms, and the major genetic variants leading to NAFLD and its progression.