Table 1: Composition of the experimental liquid diets in each group1,2.

IngredientsCCF25CF57EEF25EF57
Concentration (g/L (1000 kcal))

Casein 41.441.441.441.441.441.4
L-cysteine 0.50.50.50.50.50.5
DL-methionine 0.30.30.30.30.30.3
Corn oil8.58.58.58.58.58.5
Olive oil28.421.312.228.421.312.2
Safflower oil2.72.72.72.72.72.7
Fish oil07.116.207.116.2
Choline bitartrate0.530.530.530.530.530.53
Fiber 101010101010
Xanthan gum444444
ICN: AIN-76 vitamins2.52.52.52.52.52.5
ICN: AIN-76 minerals2.62.62.62.62.62.6
Maltodextrin115.2115.2115.225.625.625.6
Ethanol 000505050

C, control; CF25, control with 25% fish oil substituted for olive oil; CF57, control with 57% fish oil substituted for olive oil; E: ethanol; EF25, ethanol with 25% fish oil substituted for olive oil; EF57, ethanol with 57% fish oil substituted for olive oil.
2Casein, L-cysteine, DL-methionine, choline bitartrate, fiber, AIN-76 vitamins, AIN-76 minerals, and maltodextrin were purchased from ICN Biochemicals (Costa Mesa, CA, USA). Xanthan gum, ethanol, and glutamine were purchased from the Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). Corn oil and olive oil were purchased from the God Bene Enterprise (Yunlin, Taiwan). Safflower oil was purchased from the Taiwan Sugar Corporation (Taipei, Taiwan). Fish oil (VIVA Omega-3) was provided by VIVA Life Science (Costa Mesa, CA, USA).