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Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 1373092, 8 pages
Review Article

Adjuvant Second-Dose Chemotherapy before Surgery for Patients with Locally Advanced Rectal Malignancy Is Not Beneficial: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Department of General Surgery, Xiamen Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Hospital Affiliated to Fujian University of TCM, Xiamen 361009, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Min Chen

Received 16 April 2017; Revised 26 June 2017; Accepted 4 July 2017; Published 1 August 2017

Academic Editor: Alessandro Passardi

Copyright © 2017 Min Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy is the standard treatment for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, although tumor responses vary widely; some patients may achieve a pathologic complete response rate (pCR) after chemoradiotherapy. Controversy exists with regard to the efficacy of different preoperative combination chemotherapy regimens and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, compared with chemoradiotherapy alone. Methods. PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Embase databases were searched for comparative studies of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer that were published between January 1991 and January 2016. Efficacies of different preoperative combination chemotherapy regimens and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (group A) were compared with chemoradiotherapy alone (group B) in a meta-analysis using Review Manager v5.2. Results. Three prospective randomized controlled trials and two prospective nonrandomized controlled trials comprising 444 cases were eligible for analysis. No significant difference was detected in the rate of pCR (50/223, 22.4% versus 35/223, 15.7%; relative risk, RR: 1.42 [95% confidence interval, CI: 0.97–2.09], ) between the two groups. The rate of tumor regression was similar for both groups (122/203, 60.1% versus 111/203, 54.7%; RR: 1.11 [95% CI: 0.94–1.29], ). Conclusions. Adjuvant chemotherapy with preoperative chemoradiotherapy did not significantly improve the rate of pCR nor the rate of T and N downstaging.