Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2017, Article ID 3804146, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3804146
Research Article

The Methylation Status and Expression of Epstein-Barr Virus Early Genes BARF1 and BHRF1 in Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Gastric Carcinomas

1Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, 19 Jiangsu Road, Qingdao 266003, China
2Department of Medical Microbiology, Qingdao University Medical College, 38 Dengzhou Road, Qingdao 266021, China
3Department of Central Laboratory, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, 19 Jiangsu Road, Qingdao 266003, China
4Department of Clinical Laboratory, Zibo Central Hospital, 19 Gongqingtuan Road, Zibo 255036, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Bing Luo; moc.361@gnibouldq

Received 31 December 2016; Revised 1 March 2017; Accepted 8 March 2017; Published 11 April 2017

Academic Editor: Haruhiko Sugimura

Copyright © 2017 Jing Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. S. Young, L. F. Yap, and P. G. Murray, “Epstein-Barr virus: more than 50 years old and still providing surprises,” Nature Reviews: Cancer, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 789–802, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. H. C. Jha, Y. Pei, and E. S. Robertson, “Epstein-Barr virus: diseases linked to infection and transformation,” Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 7, p. 1602, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. K. Takada, “Epstein-Barr virus and gastric carcinoma,” Molecular Pathology, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 255–261, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. G. Jang, E. J. Jung, and W. H. Kim, “Expression of BamHI-A rightward transcripts in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric cancers,” Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 250–254, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. Shinozaki-Ushiku, A. Kunita, and M. Fukayama, “Update on Epstein-Barr virus and gastric cancer (review),” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1421–1434, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. L. Gulley, “Genomic assays for Epstein-Barr virus-positive gastric adenocarcinoma,” Experimental & Molecular Medicine, vol. 47, no. 1, article e134, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. Elgui de Oliveira, B. G. Muller-Coan, and J. S. Pagano, “Viral carcinogenesis beyond malignant transformation: EBV in the progression of human cancers,” Trends in Microbiology, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 649–664, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. Murata, C. Noda, Y. Narita et al., “Induction of Epstein-Barr virus oncoprotein LMP1 by transcription factors AP-2 and early B cell factor,” Journal of Virology, vol. 90, no. 8, pp. 3873–3889, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. B. F. Israel and S. C. Kenney, “Virally targeted therapies for EBV-associated malignancies,” Oncogene, vol. 22, no. 33, pp. 5122–5130, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. G. Decaussin, F. Sbih-Lammali, M. de Turenne-Tessier, A. Bouguermouh, and T. Ooka, “Expression of BARF1 gene encoded by Epstein-Barr virus in nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsies,” Cancer Research, vol. 60, no. 19, pp. 5584–5588, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  11. C. X. Zhang, G. Decaussin, J. Daillie, and T. Ooka, “Altered expression of two Epstein-Barr virus early genes localized in BamHI-A in nonproducer Raji cells,” Journal of Virology, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 1862–1869, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  12. E. Seto, L. Yang, J. Middeldorp et al., “Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded BARF1 gene is expressed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and EBV-associated gastric carcinoma tissues in the absence of lytic gene expression,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 82–88, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. J. Stevens, S. A. Verkuijlen, B. Hariwiyanto et al., “Noninvasive diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: nasopharyngeal brushings reveal high Epstein-Barr virus DNA load and carcinoma-specific viral BARF1 mRNA,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 119, no. 3, pp. 608–614, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. zur Hausen, A. A. Brink, M. E. Craanen, J. M. Middeldorp, C. J. Meijer, and A. J. van den Brule, “Unique transcription pattern of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in EBV-carrying gastric adenocarcinomas: expression of the transforming BARF1 gene,” Cancer Research, vol. 60, no. 10, pp. 2745–2748, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  15. E. K. Hoebe, C. Wille, E. S. Hopmans et al., “Epstein-Barr virus transcription activator R upregulates BARF1 expression by direct binding to its promoter, independent of methylation,” Journal of Virology, vol. 86, no. 20, pp. 11322–11332, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. K. Hoebe, T. Y. S. Le Large, A. E. Greijer, and J. M. Middeldorp, “BamHI-A rightward frame 1, an Epstein-Barr virus-encoded oncogene and immune modulator,” Reviews in Medical Virology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 367–383, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Takada, “Role of EBER and BARF1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tumorigenesis,” Seminars in Cancer Biology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 162–165, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. J. Austin, E. Flemington, C. N. Yandava, J. L. Strominger, and S. H. Speck, “Complex transcription of the Epstein-Barr virus BamHI fragment H rightward open reading frame 1 (BHRF1) in latently and lytically infected B lymphocytes,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 85, no. 11, pp. 3678–3682, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  19. M. Y. Liu, Y. Y. Shih, L. Y. Li et al., “Expression of the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 gene, a homologue of Bcl-2, in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 241–250, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. J. J. Oudejans, A. J. van den Brule, N. M. Jiwa et al., “BHRF1, the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) homologue of the BCL-2 protooncogene, is transcribed in EBV-associated B-cell lymphomas and in reactive lymphocytes,” Blood, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 1893–1902, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  21. B. Luo, Y. Wang, X. F. Wang et al., “Expression of Epstein-Barr virus genes in EBV-associated gastric carcinomas,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 629–633, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. X. Liu, Y. Wang, X. Wang et al., “Epigenetic silencing of WNT5A in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma,” Archives of Virology, vol. 158, no. 1, pp. 123–132, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Sugiura, S. Imai, M. Tokunaga et al., “Transcriptional analysis of Epstein-Barr virus gene expression in EBV-positive gastric carcinoma: unique viral latency in the tumour cells,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 625–631, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. X. Liu, X. Tang, S. Zhang et al., “Methylation and expression of retinoblastoma and transforming growth factor-beta1 genes in Epstein-Barr virus-associated and -negative gastric carcinomas,” Gastroenterology Research and Practice, vol. 2012, Article ID 906017, p. 8, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. Mannelli and O. Gallo, “Cancer stem cells hypothesis and stem cells in head and neck cancers,” Cancer Treatment Reviews, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 515–539, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Li, X. Liu, M. Liu, K. Che, and B. Luo, “Methylation and expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1, 2A and 2B in EBV-associated gastric carcinomas and cell lines,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 673–680, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. X. Wei and T. Ooka, “A transforming function of the BARF1 gene encoded by Epstein-Barr virus,” The EMBO Journal, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 2897–2903, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  28. W. Sheng, G. Decaussin, S. Sumner, and T. Ooka, “N-terminal domain of BARF1 gene encoded by Epstein-Barr virus is essential for malignant transformation of rodent fibroblasts and activation of BCL-2,” Oncogene, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1176–1185, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. X. Wei, J. C. Moulin, G. Decaussin, F. Berger, and T. Ooka, “Expression and tumorigenicity of the Epstein-Barr virus BARF1 gene in human Louckes B-lymphocyte cell line,” Cancer Research, vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 1843–1848, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  30. W. Sheng, G. Decaussin, A. Ligout, K. Takada, and T. Ooka, “Malignant transformation of Epstein-Barr virus-negative Akata cells by introduction of the BARF1 gene carried by Epstein-Barr virus,” Journal of Virology, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 3859–3865, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Q. Wang, S. W. Tsao, T. Ooka et al., “Anti-apoptotic role of BARF1 in gastric cancer cells,” Cancer Letters, vol. 238, no. 1, pp. 90–103, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. P. Hayes, A. A. Brink, M. B. Vervoort, J. M. Middeldorp, C. J. Meijer, and A. J. van den Brule, “Expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transcripts encoding homologues to important human proteins in diverse EBV associated diseases,” Molecular Pathology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 97–103, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. M. S. Chang, D. H. Kim, J. K. Roh et al., “Epstein-Barr virus-encoded BARF1 promotes proliferation of gastric carcinoma cells through regulation of NF-kappaB,” Journal of Virology, vol. 87, no. 19, pp. 10515–10523, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Marchini, B. Tomkinson, J. I. Cohen, and E. Kieff, “BHRF1, the Epstein-Barr virus gene with homology to Bc12, is dispensable for B-lymphocyte transformation and virus replication,” Journal of Virology, vol. 65, no. 11, pp. 5991–6000, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  35. C. W. Dawson, A. G. Eliopoulos, J. Dawson, and L. S. Young, “BHRF1, a viral homologue of the Bcl-2 oncogene, disturbs epithelial cell differentiation,” Oncogene, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 69–77, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  36. M. Fukayama, R. Hino, and H. Uozaki, “Epstein-Barr virus and gastric carcinoma: virus-host interactions leading to carcinoma,” Cancer Science, vol. 99, no. 9, pp. 1726–1733, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus