Gastroenterology Research and Practice / 2020 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Daily Usage of Proton Pump Inhibitors May Reduce the Severity of Critical Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Elderly Patients

Table 1

Comparison of the clinical characteristics between the two groups of patients with different severities of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
(a) Clinical characteristics of all 97 patients enrolled in this study

CharacteristicsBleeding severityUnivariate valueMultivariate
Mild (%)Moderate/severe (%)OR (95% CI) value

Age0.2174n.s.
Male31 (63.3)31 (64.6)1.0000
Etiology of bleeding
 Esophageal ulcer2 (4.1)2 (4.2)1.0000
 Gastric ulcer22 (44.9)30 (62.5)0.1044n.s.
 Duodenal ulcer11 (22.4)8 (16.7)0.6102
 Solid cancer5 (10.2)1 (2.1)0.2041n.s.
 Others (Mallory–Weiss, esophagitis, angiodysplasia, etc.)9 (18.4)7 (14.6)0.7854
Medications
 Antiplatelets7 (14.3)6 (12.5)1.0000
 Anticoagulants4 (8.2)4 (8.3)1.0000
 NSAIDs7 (14.3)8 (16.7)0.7854
 Proton pump inhibitor15 (30.6)2 (4.2)0.000910.147 (2.174-47.358)0.003
 H2 receptor blocker3 (6.1)5 (10.4)0.4865
Comorbid illness
 Hypertension26 (53.1)20 (41.7)0.3115
 Diabetes mellitus10 (20.4)11 (22.9)0.8092
 Hyperlipidemia7 (14.3)7 (14.6)1.0000
 Cerebrovascular diseases5 (10.2)7 (14.6)0.5529
 Cardiovascular diseases9 (18.4)5 (10.4)0.3873
 Liver diseases2 (4.1)6 (12.5)0.1591n.s.
 Renal diseases6 (12.2)3 (6.3)0.4865
 Dementia2 (4.1)2 (4.2)1.0000
 Nongastrointestinal malignancies9 (18.4)10 (20.8)0.8026

(b) Clinical characteristics of 45 patients over 75 years old enrolled in this study

CharacteristicsBleeding severityUnivariate valueMultivariate
Mild (%)Moderate/severe (%)OR (95% CI) value

Age0.9587
Male15 (55.6)11 (61.1)0.7660
Etiology of bleeding
 Esophageal ulcer2 (7.4)0 (0.0)0.5091
 Gastric ulcer10 (37.0)11 (61.1)0.1376n.s.
 Duodenal ulcer5 (18.5)2 (11.1)0.6844
 Solid cancer5 (18.5)1 (5.6)0.3773
 Others (Mallory–Weiss, esophagitis, angiodysplasia, etc.)5 (18.5)4 (22.2)1.0000
Medications
 Antiplatelets6 (22.2)4 (22.2)1.0000
 Anticoagulants3 (11.1)3 (16.7)0.6703
 NSAIDs5 (18.5)2 (11.1)0.6844
 Proton pump inhibitor10 (37.0)1 (5.6)0.030710.000 (1.150-8951)0.037
 H2 receptor blocker3 (11.1)3 (16.7)0.6703
Comorbid illness
 Hypertension19 (70.4)12 (66.7)0.7668
 Diabetes mellitus6 (22.2)7 (38.9)0.3172
 Hyperlipidemia5 (18.5)5 (27.8)1.0000
 Cerebrovascular diseases5 (18.5)3 (16.7)1.0000
 Cardiovascular diseases7 (25.9)3 (16.7)0.7161
 Liver diseases2 (7.4)1 (5.6)1.0000
 Renal diseases5 (18.5)2 (11.1)0.6844
 Dementia2 (7.4)1 (5.6)1.0000
 Nongastrointestinal malignancies3 (11.1)4 (22.2)0.4122

(c) Clinical characteristics of 52 patients younger than 75 years old enrolled in this study

CharacteristicsBleeding severityUnivariate valueMultivariate
Mild (%)Moderate/severe (%)OR (95% CI) value

Age0.4869
Male16 (72.7)20 (66.7)0.7646
Etiology of bleeding
 Esophageal ulcer0 (0.0)2 (6.7)0.5023
 Gastric ulcer12 (54.5)19 (63.3)0.5764
 Duodenal ulcer6 (27.2)6 (20.0)0.7402
 Solid cancer0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1.0000
 Others (Mallory–Weiss, esophagitis, angiodysplasia, etc.)4 (18.2)3 (10.0)0.4385
Medications
 Antiplatelets1 (4.5)2 (6.7)1.0000
 Anticoagulants1 (4.5)1 (3.3)1.0000
 NSAIDs2 (9.1)6 (20.0)0.4420
 Proton pump inhibitor5 (22.7)1 (3.3)0.0716n.s.
 H2 receptor blocker0 (0.0)2 (6.7)0.5023
Comorbid illness
 Hypertension7 (31.8)8 (26.7)0.7618
 Diabetes mellitus4 (18.2)4 (13.3)0.7084
 Hyperlipidemia2 (9.1)2 (6.7)1.0000
 Cerebrovascular diseases0 (0.0)4 (13.3)0.1282n.s.
 Cardiovascular diseases2 (9.1)2 (6.7)1.0000
 Liver diseases2 (9.1)3 (10.0)1.0000
 Renal diseases3 (13.6)3 (6.3)0.6890
 Dementia0 (0.0)1 (3.3)1.0000
 Nongastrointestinal malignancies2 (9.1)7 (23.3)0.2720

Values were estimated by Fisher’s exact probability test for univariate analysis, and multivariable logistic regression for multivariable analysis. NSAIDs: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

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