Table of Contents
Hepatitis Research and Treatment
Volume 2010, Article ID 562578, 9 pages
Review Article

Long-Term Effects of Antiviral Therapy in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

1Department of Gastroenterology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Shimokasuya 143, Isehara 259-1193, Japan
2Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1509, USA

Received 22 June 2010; Accepted 25 July 2010

Academic Editor: Ming-Lung Yu

Copyright © 2010 Tatehiro Kagawa and Emmet B. Keeffe. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Chronic hepatitis C is a major cause of chronic liver disease globally, and the natural history of progression may lead to cirrhosis with liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma, and premature liver-related death. Emerging data demonstrates that interferon-based therapy, particularly among those achieving a sustained virologic response (SVR), is associated with long-term persistence of SVR, improved fibrosis and inflammation scores, reduced incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma, and prolonged life expectancy. This reduction in the rate of progression has also been demonstrated in patients with chronic hepatitis C and cirrhosis in some but not all studies. The majority of these results are reported with standard interferon therapy, and long-term results of peginterferon plus ribavirin therapy with a higher likelihood of SVR should have a yet greater impact on the population of treated patients. The impact on slowing progression is greatest in patients with an SVR, less in relapsers, and equivocal in nonresponders. Thus, the natural history of chronic hepatitis C after completion of antiviral therapy is favorable with achievement of an SVR, although further data are needed to determine the likely incremental impact of peginterferon plus ribavirin, late long-term effects of therapy, and the benefit of treatment in patients with advanced hepatic fibrosis.