Table of Contents
Hepatitis Research and Treatment
Volume 2014, Article ID 296958, 5 pages
Research Article

Prevalence and Seroincidence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Infection in High Risk People Who Inject Drugs in China and Thailand

1Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
2Guangxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanning 530028, China
3Xinjiang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Urumqi 83001, China
4Research Institute for Health Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
5Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
6Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
7State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Beijing 102206, China
8University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA

Received 16 October 2013; Revised 25 February 2014; Accepted 25 February 2014; Published 27 March 2014

Academic Editor: Annarosa Floreani

Copyright © 2014 J. Brooks Jackson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We determined the prevalence and incidence of HBV and HCV infection in people who inject drugs (PWIDs) at high risk for HIV in China and Thailand and determined the association of HBV and HCV incidence with urine opiate test results and with short-term versus long-term buprenorphine-naloxone (B-N) treatment use in a randomized clinical trial (HPTN 058). 13.8% of 1049 PWIDs in China and 13.9% of 201 PWIDs in Thailand were HBsAg positive at baseline. Among HBsAg negative participants, the HBsAg incidence rate was 2.7/100 person years in China and 0/100 person years in Thailand. 81.9% of 1049 PWIDs in China and 59.7% of 201 in Thailand were HCV antibody positive at baseline. The HCV confirmed seroincidence rate among HCV antibody negative PWIDs was 22/100 person years in China and 4.6/100 person years in Thailand. Incident HBsAg was not significantly different in the short-term versus long-term B-N arm in China or Thailand. Participants with positive opiate results in at least 75% of their urines during the time period were at increased risk of incident HBsAg (HR = 5.22; 95% CI, 1.08 to 25.22; ) in China, but not incident HCV conversion in China or Thailand.