Table 2: Bile leaks after liver resection for benign and malignant tumors.

NumberAuthor DiagnosisBile leakComments

(1)Capussotti et al. [6]610Benign disease 53;
Malignant 557
22 (3.6%)Fibrin glue protective; more leaks for peripheral hepatic cholangiocarcinoma and resections involving segment 4

(2)Yamashita et al. [7]781Benign 69; malignant 71231 (4%) Benign 2.9%; malignant 4.1%Major hepatectomy including segment 4 and caudate higher risk; intraop leak test beneficial

(3)Tanaka et al. [8]36326 (7.2%)All malignantHigher leaks for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

(4)Lo et al. [9]347Benign 62;
malignant 285
28 (8.1%)Higher leaks for left hepatectomy, left trisegmentectomy, older patients, and cholangiocarcinoma

(5)Jarnagin et al. [25]1803Benign 161;
malignant 1642
47 (2.6%)Higher morbidity for complex resections and patient comorbidity

(6)Imamura et al. [30]825Benign 31;
malignant 794
77 (9.3%)Higher leak for complex resections

(6)Erdogan et al. [31]205Benign 70;
malignant 135
13 (6.3%);
benign 4.3%,
malignant 7.4%
Presence of comorbidity and complex resections associated with higher morbidity

(7)Clarke et al. [32]49All benign3 (6.1%)Low incidence of leaks for benign lesions