Table of Contents
HPB Surgery
Volume 2018, Article ID 6094936, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6094936
Research Article

Prevalence of Steatosis Hepatis in the Eurotransplant Region: Impact on Graft Acceptance Rates

1Department of Surgery, Campus Charité Mitte ∣ Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Experimental Surgery and Regenerative Medicine, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin 13353, Germany
2BIH Charité Clinician Scientist Program, Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Berlin 10178, Germany
3Berlin Institute of Health and Department of Nephrology and Critical Care Medicine, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin 13353, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to Igor M. Sauer; ed.etirahc@reuas.rogi

Received 17 July 2018; Accepted 17 October 2018; Published 1 November 2018

Academic Editor: Shu-Sen Zheng

Copyright © 2018 Simon Moosburner et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. Habka, D. Mann, R. Landes, A. Soto-Gutierrez, and S. Gruttadauria, “Future Economics of Liver Transplantation: A 20-Year Cost Modeling Forecast and the Prospect of Bioengineering Autologous Liver Grafts,” PLoS ONE, vol. 10, no. 7, p. e0131764, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. E. S. Orman, M. E. Mayorga, S. B. Wheeler et al., “Declining liver graft quality threatens the future of liver transplantation in the United States,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1040–1050, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. A. Sass and D. J. Reich, “Liver Transplantation in the 21st Century: Expanding the Donor Options,” Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 641–658, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. Pezzati, D. Ghinolfi, P. De Simone, E. Balzano, and F. Filipponi, “Strategies to optimize the use of marginal donors in liver transplantation,” World Journal of Hepatology, vol. 7, no. 26, pp. 2636–2647, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Eurotransplant, “Deceased liver donors used, by year, by donor country,” Eurotransplant Statistics Report Library, Leiden, 2017. View at Google Scholar
  6. Eurotransplant, Active liver waiting list (at year-end) in All ET, by year, by country, 2016.
  7. K. B. Klein, T. D. Stafinski, and D. Menon, “Predicting survival after liver transplantation based on pre-transplant MELD score: A systematic review of the literature,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 12, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. Sharma, D. E. Schaubel, Q. Gong, M. Guidinger, and R. M. Merion, “End-stage liver disease candidates at the highest model for end-stage liver disease scores have higher wait-list mortality than status-1A candidates,” Hepatology, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 192–198, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. E. S. Orman, A. S. Barritt, S. B. Wheeler, and P. H. Hayashi, “Declining liver utilization for transplantation in the United States and the impact of donation after cardiac death,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 59–68, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. Pais, A. S. Barritt, Y. Calmus et al., “NAFLD and liver transplantation: Current burden and expected challenges,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 1245–1257, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. D. Williams, J. Stengel, M. I. Asike et al., “Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis among a largely middle-aged population utilizing ultrasound and liver biopsy: a prospective study,” Gastroenterology, vol. 140, no. 1, pp. 124–131, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. H. Le, P. Devaki, N. B. Ha et al., “Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and risk factors for advanced fibrosis and mortality in the United States,” PLoS ONE, vol. 12, no. 3, p. e0173499, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. N. Chalasani, Z. Younossi, and J. E. Lavine, “The diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American College of Gastroenterology, and the American Gastroenterological Association,” Hepatology, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 2005–2023, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. L. Spitzer, O. B. Lao, A. A. S. Dick et al., “The biopsied donor liver: incorporating macrosteatosis into high-risk donor assessment,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 874–884, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. Dutkowski, A. Schlegel, K. Slankamenac et al., “The use of fatty liver grafts in modern allocation systems: risk assessment by the balance of risk (BAR) score,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 256, no. 5, pp. 861–869, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. L. de Graaf, J. Kench, P. Dilworth et al., “Grade of deceased donor liver macrovesicular steatosis impacts graft and recipient outcomes more than the Donor Risk Index,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 540–546, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. K. M. Olthoff, L. Kulik, B. Samstein et al., “Validation of a current definition of early allograft dysfunction in liver transplant recipients and analysis of risk factors,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 943–949, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. C. Gehrau, V. R. Mas, C. I. Dumur et al., “Donor hepatic steatosis induce exacerbated ischemia-reperfusion injury through activation of innate immune response molecular pathways,” Transplantation, vol. 99, no. 12, pp. 2523–2533, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. J. J. Chu, A. J. R. Hickey, A. R. J. Phillips, and A. S. J. R. Bartlett, “The Impact of Hepatic Steatosis on Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Experimental Studies: A Systematic Review,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2013, Article ID 192029, 12 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. M. K. Angele, M. Rentsch, W. H. Hartl et al., “Effect of graft steatosis on liver function and organ survival after liver transplantation,” The American Journal of Surgery, vol. 195, no. 2, pp. 214–220, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. U. Kulik, F. Lehner, J. Klempnauer, and J. Borlak, “Primary non-function is frequently associated with fatty liver allografts and high mortality after re-transplantation,” Liver International, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1219–1228, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Gabrielli, F. Moisan, M. Vidal et al., “Steatotic livers. can we use them in OLTX? Outcome data from a prospective baseline liver biopsy study,” Annals of Hepatology, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 891–898, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. P. Deroose, G. Kazemier, P. Zondervan, J. N. M. IJzermans, H. J. Metselaar, and I. P. J. Alwayn, “Hepatic steatosis is not always a contraindication for cadaveric liver transplantation,” HPB, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 417–425, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. J. Chu, A. J. Dare, A. R. Phillips, and A. S. Bartlett, “Donor hepatic steatosis and outcome after liver transplantation: a systematic review,” Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, vol. 19, pp. 1713–1724, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. P. Waage and S. Novak, Organspende und Transplantation in Deutschland [Organ donation and transplantation in Germany]. Frankfurt/Main: Deutsche Stiftung Organtransplantation. https://www.dso.de/uploads/tx_dsodl/DSO_JB_2015_Web_2.pdf.
  26. J. Briceno, J. Padillo, S. Rufián, G. Solórzano, and C. Pera, “Assignment of steatotic livers by the mayo model for end-stage liver disease,” Transplant International, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 577–583, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. Paschos and K. Paletas, “Non alcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome,” Hippokratia, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 9–19, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. Williams, “Metabolic Syndrome: Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease,” FP Essent, vol. 435, pp. 24–29, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  29. The GBD 2015 Obesity Collaborators, “Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 377, no. 1, pp. 13–27, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. N. I. Nativ, T. J. Maguire, G. Yarmush et al., “Liver defatting: An alternative approach to enable steatotic liver transplantation,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 3176–3183, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. M. Cameron, R. M. Ghobrial, H. Yersiz et al., “Optimal utilization of donor grafts with extended criteria: A single-center experience in over 1000 liver transplants,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 243, no. 6, pp. 748–753, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. J. Halazun, A. A. Rana, B. Fortune et al., “No country for old livers? Examining and optimizing the utilization of elderly liver grafts,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 669–678, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. F. Tacke, D. C. Kroy, A. P. Barreiros, and U. P. Neumann, “Liver transplantation in Germany,” Liver Transplantation, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1136–1142, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Taniguchi, “Liver transplantation in the MELD era--analysis of the OPTN/UNOS registry.,” Clinical transplants, pp. 41–65, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. W. Schoening, M. Helbig, N. Buescher et al., “Eurotransplant donor-risk-index and recipient factors: Influence on long-term outcome after liver transplantation - A large single-center experience,” Clinical Transplantation, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. F. E. Sharkey, I. Lytvak, T. J. Prihoda, K. V. Speeg, W. K. Washburn, and G. A. Halff, “High-grade microsteatosis and delay in hepatic function after orthotopic liver transplantation,” Human Pathology, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 1337–1342, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. C. Westerkamp, M. T. De Boer, A. P. Van Den Berg, A. S. H. Gouw, and R. J. Porte, “Similar outcome after transplantation of moderate macrovesicular steatotic and nonsteatotic livers when the cold ischemia time is kept very short,” Transplant International, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 319–329, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. N. Gilbo, G. Catalano, M. Salizzoni, and R. Romagnoli, “Liver graft preconditioning, preservation and reconditioning,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 1265–1274, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus