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Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 13, Issue 4, Pages 213-216

Periodontal Disease and Bacterial Vaginosis Increase the Risk for Adverse Pregnancy Outcome

1Institute of Dentistry, Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, University of Helsinki, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
2University of Helsinki, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Haartmaninkatu 2, Helsinki 00290, Finland
3Division of Oral Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

Received 19 January 2005; Revised 27 April 2005

Copyright © 2005 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objectives. To determine whether periodontal disease or bacterial vaginosis (BV) diagnosed before pregnancy increase the risk for adverse pregnancy outcome.

Methods. We enrolled a total of 252 women who had discontinued contraception in order to become pregnant. The first 130 pregnant women were included in the analyses.

Results. Multivariate analysis showed a strong association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcome (OR 5.5, 95% confidence interval 1.4–21.2; p = 0.014), and a borderline association between BV and adverse pregnancy outcome (OR 3.2, 95% confidence interval 0.9–10.7; p = 0.061).

Conclusion. Our study suggests that pre-pregnancy counseling should include both oral and vaginal examinations to rule out periodontal disease and BV. This may ultimately have an impact on antenatal healthcare, and decrease the risk for adverse pregnancy outcome.