Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 145-150
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10647440500068248

Real-Time PCR Improves Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection Compared With Culture Using Self-Collected Vaginal swabs

1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
2Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Magee-Women's Research Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
3Department of Behavior Science, Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA, USA
4Center for AIDS Research, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
5Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
6Clinical Laboratories, H180, Emory University Hospital, 1364 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA

Received 2 July 2004; Accepted 1 December 2004

Copyright © 2005 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Citations to this Article [83 citations]

The following is the list of published articles that have cited the current article.

  • Charlotte Ann Gaydos, “Rapid tests for sexually transmitted diseases,” Current Infectious Disease Reports, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 115–124, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Paul Simpson, Geoff Higgins, Ming Qiao, Russell Waddell, and Tuckweng Kok, “Real-time PCRs for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis β-tubulin and 18S rRNA genes in female genital specimens,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 772–777, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Richard A. Crosby, Ralph J. DiClemente, Gina M. Wingood, Laura F. Salazar, Eve Rose, Jessica M. Sales, and Angela M. Caliendo, “Oral contraceptive use may not preclude condom use: A study of non-pregnant African-American adolescent females,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 216–218, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Richard A. Crosby, Ralph J. DiClemente, Gina M. Wingood, Laura F. Salazar, Eve Rose, and Jessica M. Sales, “The protective value of school enrolment against sexually transmitted disease: A study of high-risk African American adolescent females,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 223–227, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pillay, Radebe, Fehler, Htun, and Ballard, “Comparison of a TaqMan-based real-time polymerase chain reaction with conventional tests for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 126–129, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jurjen Schirm, Petra A.J. Bos, Irene K. Roozeboom-Roelfsema, Dirk S. Luijt, and Lieke V. Möller, “Trichomonas vaginalis detection using real-time TaqMan PCR,” Journal of Microbiological Methods, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 243–247, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Laura F. Salazar, Richard A. Crosby, Ralph J. Diclemente, Gina M. Wingood, Eve Rose, Jessica Mcdermott Sales, and Angela M. Caliendo, “Personal, relational, and peer-level risk factors for laboratory confirmed STD prevalence among low-income African American adolescent females,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 761–766, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Beverly E. Sha, Susan H. Gawel, Ronald C. Hershow, Douglas Passaro, Michael Augenbraun, Teresa M. Darragh, Alice Stek, Elizabeth T. Golub, Lorraine Cashin Mph, Michael D. Moxley, Kathleen M. Weber, and D. Heather Watts, “Analysis of Standard Methods for Diagnosing Vaginitis,” Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 240–250, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • &NA;, “Measure of HIV/STD Risk-Reduction: Strategies for Enhancing the Utility of Behavioral and Biological Outcome Measures for African American Couples,” JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 49, no. Supplement1, pp. S35–S41, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Miranda A. Farage, Kenneth W. Miller, and William J. Ledger, “Determining the Cause of Vulvovaginal Symptoms,” Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 445–464, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Luis Otero Guerra, José Antonio Lepe Jiménez, María Antonia Blanco Galán, Javier Aznar Martín, and Fernando Vázquez Valdés, “Utilidad de las técnicas de biología molecular en el diagnóstico de las infecciones de transmisión sexual y otras infecciones genitales,” Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, vol. 26, pp. 42–49, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jessica Ingersoll, Tameka Bythwood, Deborah Abdul-Ali, Gina M. Wingood, Ralph J. Diclemente, and Angela M. Caliendo, “Stability of Trichomonas vaginalis DNA in urine specimens,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 1628–1630, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Laura F. Salazar, Richard A. Crosby, Ralph J. DiClemente, Gina M. Wingood, Eve Rose, Jessica McDermott-Sales, and Angela M. Caliendo, “African-American Female Adolescents Who Engage in Oral, Vaginal and Anal Sex: “Doing It All” as a Significant Marker for Risk of Sexually Transmitted Infection,” AIDS and Behavior, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 85–93, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • José Antonio Lepe Jiménez, Luis Otero Guerra, María Antonia Blanco Galán, Javier Aznar Martín, and Fernando Vázquez Valdés, “Panorama actual de la epidemiología, diagnóstico y tratamiento de las infecciones de transmisión sexual,” Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, vol. 26, pp. 25–31, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Campbell, Woods, Lloyd, Elsayed, and Church, “Evaluation of the OSOM Trichomonas rapid test versus wet preparation examination for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis vaginitis in specimens from women with a low prevalence of infection,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 3467–3469, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ralph J. DiClemente, Gina M. Wingood, Richard A. Crosby, Laura F. Salazar, Eve Rose, Jessica McDermott Sales, and Angela M. Caliendo, “Prevalence, correlates, and efficacy of selective avoidance as a sexually transmitted disease prevention strategy among African American adolescent females,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 162, no. 1, pp. 60–65, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Richard A. Crosby, Ralph J. DiClemente, Gina M. Wingood, Laura F. Salazar, Delia Lang, Eve Rose, and Jessica McDermott-Sales, “Co-occurrence of intoxication during sex and sexually transmissible infections among young African American women: does partner intoxication matter?,” Sexual Health, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 285, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sharon R. Sznitman, Daniel Romer, Larry K. Brown, Ralph J. DiClemente, Robert F. Valois, Peter A. Vanable, Michael P. Carey, and Bonita Stanton, “Prevalence, Correlates, and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Related to Coitus Interruptus Among African-American Adolescents,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 218–220, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ralph J. DiClemente, Gina M. Wingood, Eve S. Rose, Jessica M. Sales, Delia L. Lang, Angela M. Caliendo, James W. Hardin, and Richard A. Crosby, “Efficacy of sexually transmitted disease/human immunodeficiency virus sexual risk-reduction intervention for African American adolescent females seeking sexual health services: A randomized controlled trial,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 163, no. 12, pp. 1112–1121, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Raina N. Fichorova, “Impact of T. vaginalis infection on innate immune responses and reproductive outcome,” Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 83, no. 1-2, pp. 185–189, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Daniel Romer, Sharon Sznitman, Ralph DiClemente, Laura F. Salazar, Peter A. Vanable, Michael P. Carey, Michael Hennessy, Larry K. Brown, Robert F. Valois, Bonita F. Stanton, Thierry Fortune, and Ivan Juzang, “Mass Media as an HIV-Prevention Strategy: Using Culturally Sensitive Messages to Reduce HIV-Associated Sexual Behavior of At-Risk African American Youth,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 99, no. 12, pp. 2150–2159, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Thomas A. Peterman, Lin H. Tian, Carol A. Metcalf, C. Kevin Malotte, Sindy M. Paul, and John M. Douglas Jr, “ Persistent, Undetected Trichomonas vaginalis Infections? ,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 259–260, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ralph J. DiClemente, Gina M. Wingood, Richard A. Crosby, Laura F. Salazar, Sara Head, Eve Rose, Jessica McDermott Sales, and Angela M. Caliendo, “Anal sex is a behavioural marker for laboratory-confirmed vaginal sexually transmissible infections and HIV-associated risk among African-American female adolescents,” Sexual Health, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 111, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nabila El-Bassel, John B. Jemmott, J. Richard Landis, Willo Pequegnat, Gina M. Wingood, Gail E. Wyatt, and Scarlett L. Bellamy, “National institute of mental health multisite Eban HIV/STD prevention intervention for African American HIV serodiscordant couples: A cluster randomized trial,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 170, no. 17, pp. 1594–1601, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • M Domeika, L Zhurauskaya, A Savicheva, N Frigo, E Sokolovskiy, A Hallén, M Unemo, and Rc Ballard, “Guidelines for the laboratory diagnosis of trichomoniasis in East European countries,” Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1125–1134, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sharon R. Sznitman, Michael P. Carey, Peter A. Vanable, Ralph J. DiClemente, Larry K. Brown, Robert F. Valois, Michael Hennessy, Naomi Farber, Christie Rizzo, Angela Caliendo, Laura F. Salazar, Bonita F. Stanton, and Daniel Romer, “The Impact of Community-Based Sexually Transmitted Infection Screening Results on Sexual Risk Behaviors of African American Adolescents,” Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 12–19, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Alexandra H. Freeman, Kenneth A. Katz, Mark W. Pandori, Leah M. Rauch, Robert P. Kohn, Sally Liska, Kyle T. Bernstein, and Jeffrey D. Klausner, “Prevalence and Correlates of Trichomonas vaginalis Among Incarcerated Persons Assessed Using a Highly Sensitive Molecular Assay,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 165–168, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Patricia Kissinger, Leandro Mena, Judy Levison, Rebecca A Clark, Megan Gatski, Harold Henderson, Norine Schmidt, Susan L Rosenthal, Leann Myers, and David H Martin, “A Randomized Treatment Trial: Single Versus 7-Day Dose of Metronidazole for The Treatment of Trichomonas Vaginalis Among HIV-Infected Women,” JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 565–571, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Christophe E. Depuydt, Elke Leuridan, Pierre Van Damme, Johannes Bogers, Annie J. Vereecken, and Gilbert G.G. Donders, “Epidemiology of trichomonas vaginalis and human papillomavirus infection detected by real-time PCR in flanders,” Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 273–280, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gina Wingood, Nabila El-Bassel, Gina Wingood, Gail E. Wyatt, John B. Jemmott, Willo Pequegnat, J. Richard Landis, Scarlett Bellamy, Louisa Gilbert, Robert H. Remien, Susan Witte, Elwin Wu, Ralph DiClemente, Hector Myers, Loretta Sweet Jemmott, David Metzger, Trina Brown, Quincy Greene, Christopher Helker, Nancy Robinson, Lynne Allen-Taylor, Dina Appleby, Evelyn Crowley, Deidre Ashton, Dawn A. Goddard, Tamu Daniel, Tina Henderson, Inna Rivkin, Cynthia M. Green, Jeffery Brently, Rebecca D. Cheraquit, Deborah Gray, Linda Hakim, Bright Sarfo, Kijana Saunders, Dawn Simmons, Keisha Wilson, Nikia D. Braxton, Christina Camp, Anita Conner, Jevon Gibson, Alvin Harmon, Teaniese Latham, Tiffany Pennick-Walters, Kenneth Rucker, Shammara Steinback, Phillip Williams, Richard Williams, Shauni Williams, Kevin Chancy, Frank Levels, Nathaniel Thomas, Reginald Bennett, Shirley Bryson, Salema Curtis, Michelle Jones, Phyllis Jones, Malachi Moore, Charles Patterson, Marcia Penn, Alicia Samuel, Randy Shine, Ralph Stevenson, Robert Tate, Michael Taylor, Charlotte Wroton, Derryck Griffith, Pearl Johnson, Lisa Matthews, Rhonda Mendoza, Allan Winkle, Jill Daugherty, Deja Er, Linda Felix, Meklit Hailemeskal, Toya Howard, Tamika Hoyte, Jamie Smith, Lisa Smith, Les DeMorst, Rotrease Regan, Elsa Rogers, Karen Carter, Calvin Collier, Mikia Croom, Dionna Samuel, Joseph Sosa, Brian Taylor, Tamara S. Bryan, LaShun Robinson-Simpson, Christina Camp, Tamra Loeb, John Williams, Lynette Gueits, Cynthia Bayer, Angela Caliendo, Shalonda Freeman, Jessica Ingersoll, Lisa Maslankowski, Debra McGee-Smith, Patrice Moorer, Michelle Mott, Bennie Woodard, Claudette Bannerman, Warren Blake, Tiffany Bratts, Olivia Copeland, Daisy De Jesus-Sosa, Adefunke Faly, Meklit Hailemeskal, Tamika Hoyte, Janet Hsu, Heather Irobunda, Shakaria Johnson, Frandy Napoleon, Karen Williams, Sonya Combs, Mathew MacDonald, Lolita Roy, Dalena White, Pandora Woods, and Crystal Wyatt, “Risky Sexual Behavior and Correlates of STD Prevalence Among African American HIV Serodiscordant Couples,” Aids And Behavior, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1023–1031, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • J. M. Sales, J. L. Brown, R. J. DiClemente, T. L. Davis, M. J. Kottke, and E. S. Rose, “Age Differences in STDs, Sexual Behaviors, and Correlates of Risky Sex Among Sexually Experienced Adolescent African-American Females,” Journal of Pediatric Psychology, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 33–42, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kimberle Chapin, and Sarah Andrea, “ APTIMA ® Trichomonas vaginalis , a transcription-mediated amplification assay for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in urogenital specimens ,” Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 679–688, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Puja Seth, Shilpa N. Patel, Jessica M. Sales, Ralph J. Diclemente, Gina M. Wingood, and Eve S. Rose, “The impact of depressive symptomatology on risky sexual behavior and sexual communication among African American female adolescents,” Psychology, Health and Medicine, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 346–356, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sharon Sznitman, Bonita F. Stanton, Peter A. Vanable, Michael P. Carey, Robert F. Valois, Larry K. Brown, Ralph DiClemente, Michael Hennessy, Laura F. Salazar, and Daniel Romer, “Long Term Effects of Community-Based STI Screening and Mass Media HIV Prevention Messages on Sexual Risk Behaviors of African American Adolescents,” AIDS and Behavior, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1755–1763, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sarah B. Andrea, and Kimberle C. Chapin, “Comparison of aptima Trichomonas vaginalis transcription-mediated amplification assay and BD affirm VPIII for detection of T. vaginalis in symptomatic women: Performance parameters and epidemiological implications,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 866–869, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Puja Seth, Jessica M. Sales, Ralph J. DiClemente, Gina M. Wingood, Eve Rose, and Shilpa N. Patel, “Longitudinal Examination of Alcohol Use: A Predictor of Risky Sexual Behavior and Trichomonas vaginalis Among African-American Female Adolescents,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 96–101, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Laura F. Salazar, Sara Head, Richard A. Crosby, Ralph J. DiClemente, Jessica McDermott Sales, Gina M. Wingood, and Eve Rose, “Personal and Social Influences Regarding Oral Sex Among African American Female Adolescents,” Journal of Women's Health, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 161–167, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nae Yu, and Mi-Kyung Lee, “Clinical Implications of Multiplex PCR Detection of Fastidious Microorganisms in Vaginitis Patients,” Korean Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 30, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Brandon M. O'Hara, Travis Sanchez, Carlos del Rio, Patrick S. Sullivan, Colleen F. Kelley, and Eli S. Rosenberg, “Prevalence of Urethral Trichomonas vaginalis in Black and White Men Who Have Sex With Men,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 739, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Andrea Swartzendruber, Jennifer L. Brown, Jessica M. Sales, Colleen C. Murray, and Ralph J. DiClemente, “Sexually Transmitted Infections, Sexual Risk Behavior, and Intimate Partner Violence Among African American Adolescent Females With a Male Sex Partner Recently Released from Incarceration,” Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 156–163, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • E. Shipitsyna, E. Zolotoverkhaya, C.Y. Chen, K.H. Chi, A. Grigoryev, A. Savicheva, R. Ballard, M. Domeika, and M. Unemo, “ Evaluation of polymerase chain reaction assays for the diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in Russia ,” Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. e217–e223, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Loida E. Bonney, Hannah L. F. Cooper, Angela M. Caliendo, Carlos del Rio, Josalin Hunter-Jones, Deanne F. Swan, Richard Rothenberg, and Benjamin Druss, “Access to Health Services and Sexually Transmitted Infections in a Cohort of Relocating African American Public Housing Residents,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 116–121, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Richard A. Crosby, Richard A. Charnigo, Chandra Weathers, Angela M. Caliendo, and Lydia A. Shrier, “Condom effectiveness against non-viral sexually transmitted infections: a prospective study using electronic daily diaries,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 88, no. 7, pp. 484–489, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Richard Crosby, Lydia A. Shrier, Richard J. Charnigo, Chandra Weathers, Stephanie A. Sanders, Cynthia A. Graham, Robin Milhausen, and William L. Yarber, “A Prospective Event-Level Analysis of Condom Use Experiences Following STI Testing Among Patients in Three US Cities,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 756–760, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nathan Ryder, Helen Woods, Kate McKay, Nicolla Giddings, Jo-ann Lenton, Christine Little, Neisha Jeoffreys, and Anna M. McNulty, “Trichomonas vaginalis Prevalence Increases With Remoteness in Rural and Remote New South Wales, Australia,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 938–941, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Shlomo M. Stemmer, Martin E. Adelson, Jason P. Trama, M. Tevfik Dorak, and Eli Mordechai, “Detection Rates of Trichomonas vaginalis, in Different Age Groups, Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction,” Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 352–357, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Rasha Elsherif, and Mohamed Abdl Youssef, “Real-time PCR improve detection of Trichomonas vaginalis compared to conventional techniques,” Comparative Clinical Pathology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 295–300, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kenneth H. Mayer, Timothy Bush, Keith Henry, Edgar T. Overton, John Hammer, Jean Richardson, Kathy Wood, Lois Conley, John Papp, Angela M. Caliendo, Pragna Patel, and John T. Brooks, “Ongoing Sexually Transmitted Disease Acquisition and Risk-Taking Behavior Among US HIV-Infected Patients in Primary Care: Implications for Prevention Interventions,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Rita Elizabeth Moreira Mascarenhas, Márcia Sacramento Cunha Machado, Bruno Fernando Borges da Costa e Silva, Rodrigo Fernandes Weyll Pimentel, Tatiana Teixeira Ferreira, Fernanda Maria Silva Leoni, and Maria Fernanda Rios Grassi, “Prevalence and Risk Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Vulvovaginitis in a Population of Sexually Active Adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil,” Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 2012, pp. 1–6, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gina M. Wingood, Ralph J. DiClemente, LaShun Robinson-Simpson, Delia L. Lang, Angela Caliendo, and James W. Hardin, “Efficacy of an HIV Intervention in Reducing High-Risk Human Papillomavirus, Nonviral Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Concurrency Among African American Women,” JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 63, pp. S36–S43, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gina M. Wingood, Priscilla Reddy, Delia L. Lang, Dorina Saleh-Onoya, Nikia Braxton, Sibusiso Sifunda, and Ralph J. DiClemente, “Efficacy of SISTA South Africa on Sexual Behavior and Relationship Control Among isiXhosa Women in South Africa,” JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 63, pp. S59–S65, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gilbert G. G. Donders, Christophe E. Depuydt, John-Paul Bogers, and Annie J. Vereecken, “Association of Trichomonas vaginalis and Cytological Abnormalities of the Cervix in Low Risk Women,” Plos One, vol. 8, no. 12, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Robyn L. Fielder, Jennifer L. Walsh, Kate B. Carey, and Michael P. Carey, “Sexual Hookups and Adverse Health Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study of First-Year College Women,” Journal of Sex Research, pp. 1–14, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Robyn L. Fielder, Kate B. Carey, and Michael P. Carey, “Acceptability of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing Using Self-collected Vaginal Swabs Among College Women,” Journal of American College Health, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 46–53, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • J. S. Huppert, B. Huang, C. Chen, H. Y. Dawood, and R. N. Fichorova, “Clinical Evidence for the Role of Trichomonas vaginalis in Regulation of Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor in the Female Genital Tract,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 207, no. 9, pp. 1462–1470, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ivy Kwon, Anna McNulty, and Phillip Read, “The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis detected by wet mount and polymerase chain reaction in Sydney women,” Sexual Health, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 385, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Robert S Remis, Juan Liu, Mona Loutfy, Wangari Tharao, Anuradha Rebbapragada, Stephen J Perusini, Lisungu Chieza, Megan Saunders, LoriAnn Green-Walker, and Rupert Kaul, “The epidemiology of sexually transmitted co-infections in HIV-positive and HIV-negative African-Caribbean women in Toronto,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 550, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Andrea Swartzendruber, Jessica M. Sales, Jennifer L. Brown, Ralph J. DiClemente, and Eve S. Rose, “Correlates of Incident Trichomonas vaginalis Infections Among African American Female Adolescents,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 240–245, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • John Carlo B. Reyes, Juan Antonio A. Solon, and Windell L. Rivera, “Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis,” Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Patrick S. Sullivan, John Peterson, Eli S. Rosenberg, Colleen F. Kelley, Hannah Cooper, Adam Vaughan, Laura F. Salazar, Paula Frew, Gina Wingood, Ralph DiClemente, Carlos del Rio, Mark Mulligan, and Travis H. Sanchez, “Understanding Racial HIV/STI Disparities in Black and White Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Multilevel Approach,” Plos One, vol. 9, no. 3, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Amir M Saleh, Hamid S Abdalla, Abdelsalam B Satti, Suad M Babiker, Gasim I Gasim, and Ishag Adam, “Diagnosis of Trichomonous vaginalis by microscopy, latex agglutination, diamond’s media, and PCR in symptomatic women, Khartoum, Sudan,” Diagnostic Pathology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 49, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gülnaz Çulha, Arif Gungoren, Cemil Demır, Ali Ulvi Hakverdı, and Nizami Duran, “Detection of trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal speciemens from women by wet mount, culture and PCR,” Journal of Clinical and Analytical Medicine, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 537–540, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mario Sviben, Emilija Mlinari Missoni, Tomislav Me-Trovi, Gordana Vojnovi, and Gordana Mlinariæ Galinovi, “Epidemiology and laboratory characteristics of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in Croatian men with and without urethritis syndrome: A case-control study,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 91, no. 5, pp. 360–364, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Andrea Swartzendruber, Jessica M. Sales, Jennifer L. Brown, Ralph J. DiClemente, and Eve S. Rose, “Comparison of Substance Use Typologies as Predictors of Sexual Risk Outcomes in African American Adolescent Females,” Archives of Sexual Behavior, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ella Trembizki, Anna-Maria G. Costa, Sepehr N. Tabrizi, David M. Whiley, and Jimmy Twin, “Opportunities and pitfalls of molecular testing for detecting sexually transmitted pathogens,” Pathology, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 219–226, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lauren E. Hearn, Nicole Ennis Whitehead, Eugene M. Dunne, and William W. Latimer, “ Correlates of Trichomonas vaginalis Among Middle Age and Older Adults Who Use Drugs ,” Substance Use & Misuse, pp. 1–9, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Andrea Swartzendruber, Jessica M. Sales, Eve S. Rose, and Ralph J. DiClemente, “Alcohol Use Problems and Sexual Risk Among Young Adult African American Mothers,” AIDS and Behavior, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ahmad N. Abou Tayoun, Paul R. Burchard, Angela M. Caliendo, Axel Scherer, and Gregory J. Tsongalis, “A multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis,” Experimental and Molecular Pathology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • A. E. Gushchin, P. G. Ryzhikh, G. A. Khayrullina, and V. I. Kisina, “An Algorithm of a Laboratory Examination of Patients for Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia Trachomatis, Mycoplasma Genitalium and Trichomonas Vaginalis Infections Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction and the Transcriptional Amplification Reaction,” Klinicheskaya dermatologiya i venerologiya, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 74, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zefiryn Cybulski, Andrzej Roszak, Zofia Talaga, Joanna Odwazna, Katarzyna Schmidt, Alicja Grabiec, Bartosz Urbański, and Jacek Wojciechowicz, “Combination of microbiological culture and multiplex PCR increases the range of vaginal microorganisms identified in cervical cancer patients at high risk for bacterial vaginosis and vaginitis,” Ginekologia Polska, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 328–334, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dewi J. de Waaij, Sander Ouburg, Jan Henk Dubbink, Remco P.H. Peters, and Servaas A. Morré, “Evaluation of Prestoplus assay and LightMix kit Trichomonas vaginalis assay for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in dry vaginal swabs,” Journal of Microbiological Methods, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Subash Chandra Sonkar, Kirti Wasnik, Anita Kumar, Pratima Mittal, and Daman Saluja, “Comparative analysis of syndromic and PCR-based diagnostic assay reveals misdiagnosis/ overtreatment for trichomoniasis based on subjective judgment in symptomatic patients,” Infectious Diseases of Poverty, vol. 5, no. 1, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Youn-Kyoung Goo, Won-Sik Shin, Hye-Won Yang, So-Young Joo, Su-Min Song, Jae-Sook Ryu, Won-Myung Lee, Hyun-Hee Kong, Won-Ki Lee, Sang-Eun Lee, Won-Ja Lee, Dong-Il Chung, and Yeonchul Hong, “Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Women Visiting 2 Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics in Daegu, South Korea,” The Korean Journal of Parasitology, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 75–80, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • John Shone, Brian L Jones, Daniela Brawley, Ciara Cunningham, Jackie Paterson, Gina McAllister, Andrew Winter, Ambreen Butt, and Claire L Alexander, “A Scottish multi-centre service evaluation examining the prevalence and diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis in symptomatic women attending sexual health clinics,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1066–1070, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Alissa Davis, Anindita Dasgupta, Dawn Goddard-Eckrich, and Nabila El-Bassel, “Trichomonas vaginalis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection Among Women Under Community Supervision,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 617–622, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Christophe E. Depuydt, Ludo Verstraete, Mario Berth, Johan Beert, John-Paul Bogers, Geert Salembier, Annie J. Vereecken, and Eugene Bosmans, “Human Papillomavirus Positivity in Women Undergoing Intrauterine Insemination Has a Negative Effect on Pregnancy Rates,” Gynecologic And Obstetric Investigation, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 41–46, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sheila Nabweyambo, Othman Kakaire, Stefanie Sowinski, Alfred Okeng, Henry Ojiambo, Joshua Kimeze, Irene Najjingo, and Freddie Bwanga, “Very low sensitivity of wet mount microscopy compared to PCR against culture in the diagnosis of vaginal trichomoniasis in Uganda: a cross sectional study,” BMC Research Notes, vol. 10, no. 1, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Elena Frati, Ester Fasoli, Marianna Martinelli, Daniela Colzani, Silvia Bianchi, Luciana Carnelli, Antonella Amendola, Pierfranco Olivani, and Elisabetta Tanzi, “Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Novel Screening Strategy for Improving Women?s Health in Vulnerable Populations,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1311, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jean-Christophe Lagier, Nafissatou Diagne, Florence Fenollar, Catherine Tamalet, Cheikh Sokhna, and Didier Raoult, “Vaginal self-sampling as a diagnosis tool in low-income countries and potential applications for exploring the infectious causes of miscarriage,” Future Microbiology, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Shlomo M. Stemmer, Eli Mordechai, Martin E. Adelson, Scott E. Gygax, and David W. Hilbert, “Trichomonas vaginalis is most frequently detected in women at the age of peri-/premenopause: an unusual pattern for a sexually transmitted pathogen,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Collin M. Price, Remco P.H. Peters, Janré Steyn, Maanda Mudau, Dawie Olivier, Lindsey De Vos, Erika Morikawa, Marleen M. Kock, Andrew Medina-Marino, and Jeffrey D Klausner, “Prevalence and Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Pregnant Women,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, pp. 1, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Loretta Brabin, Stephen A. Roberts, Sabine Gies, Andrew Nelson, Salou Diallo, Christopher J. Stewart, Adama Kazienga, Julia Birtles, Sayouba Ouedraogo, Yves Claeys, Halidou Tinto, Umberto d’Alessandro, E. Brian Faragher, and Bernard Brabin, “Effects of long-term weekly iron and folic acid supplementation on lower genital tract infection – a double blind, randomised controlled trial in Burkina Faso,” BMC Medicine, vol. 15, no. 1, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Alissa Davis, Dawn Goddard-Eckrich, Anindita Dasgupta, and Nabila El-Bassel, “Risk factors associated with sexually transmitted infections among women under community supervision in New York City,” International Journal of STD & AIDS, pp. 095646241875522, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar