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Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 107140, 5 pages
Review Article

Do Women Using Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Reduce Condom Use? A Novel Study Design Incorporating Semen Biomarkers

1Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724, USA
2Clinical Sciences Division, FHI 360, Durham, NC 27713, USA

Received 26 April 2011; Revised 2 June 2011; Accepted 17 June 2011

Academic Editor: Jessica M. Sales

Copyright © 2011 Maria F. Gallo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods are highly effective against pregnancy. A barrier to their widespread promotion can include the concern they will lead reduced condom use and, thus, will put couples at higher risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We review evidence from previous studies of condom “migration” associated with the use of LARC and propose a novel study design to address the two main methodological issues that have limited these earlier studies. Namely, we propose to use a randomized controlled trial design and to use a biological marker of semen exposure for measuring changes in condom use.