Table 2: Predictors of modern contraceptive use among HIV-infected women aged 16–50 years receiving antiretroviral treatment at 16 public-sector clinics in Lusaka, Zambia (November 2009–November 2010).

Women using modern contraceptionWomen not using modern contraceptionCrude OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)
N = 11,358N = 7,049

Age at 1st visit (years)
 16–24736 (6.5%)510 (7.2%)1.001.00
 25–345,747 (50.6%)2,615 (37.1%)1.52 (1.35–1.72)1.05 (0.87–1.25)
 ≥354,875 (42.9%)3,924 (55.7%)0.86 (0.76–0.97)0.63 (0.52–0.77)

Marital status
 Married6,503 (72.9%)2,020 (38.4%)1.001.00
 Single/divorced/widowed2,414 (27.1%)3,243 (61.6%)0.23 (0.22–0.25)0.30 (0.27–0.34)

Education
 None2,862 (27.4%)1,815 (28.2%)1.001.00
 Primary3,493 (33.4%)2,110 (32.7%)1.05 (0.97–1.14)1.13 (0.99–1.28)
 Secondary or more4,108 (39.3%)2,522 (39.1%)1.03 (0.96–1.12)1.13 (1.00–1.27)

Number of living children
 01,041 (11.6%)765 (14.2%)1.001.00
 ≥17,947 (88.4%)4,632 (85.8%)1.26 (1.14–1.39)1.47 (1.21–1.78)

Monthly income
 <ZMK 200,0002,709 (35.9%)1,823 (38.8%)1.001.00
 ≥ZMK 200,0004,835 (64.1%)2,874 (61.2%)1.13 (1.05–1.22)1.03 (0.92–1.15)

CD4+ cell count (cells/uL)
 <2502,473 (22.0%)1,887 (27.1%)1.001.00
 250–3502,042 (18.1%)1,295 (18.6%)1.20 (1.10–1.32)1.18 (1.05–1.33)
 ≥3516,746 (59.9%)3,784 (54.3%)1.36 (1.27–1.46)1.23 (1.10–1.38)

Hemoglobin (g/dL)
 ≤8.0168 (1.5%)195 (2.8%)1.001.00
 8.1–9.9710 (6.3%)655 (9.4%)1.26 (1.00–1.59)1.56 (1.24–1.97)
 ≥10.010,355 (92.2%)6,090 (87.8%)1.97 (1.60–2.43)2.16 (1.72–2.71)

History or current tuberculosis
 Yes1,999 (17.6%)1,442 (20.5%)1.001.00
 No9,359 (82.4%)5,607 (79.5%)1.20 (1.12–1.30)1.06 (0.96–1.18)

HIV status disclosure to partner
 Yes5,985 (52.7%)1,838 (26.1%)1.001.00
 Unknown5,373 (47.3%)5,211 (73.9%)0.32 (0.30–0.34)0.75 (0.64–0.87)

Partner’s HIV status
 Negative476 (4.2%)145 (2.1%)1.001.00
 Positive2,700 (23.8%)898 (12.7%)0.92 (0.75–1.12)0.76 (0.54–1.06)
 Unknown3,357 (29.6%)1,975 (28.0%)0.52 (0.43–0.63)0.75 (0.56–0.99)
 Missing4,825 (42.5%)4,031 (57.2%)0.36 (0.30–0.44)0.66 (0.48–0.89)

OR: odds ratio; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval.