Table 1: List of NHP used in reproductive health research.

AnimalSpeciesAverage Life span (years)Average size (cm)Average weight (kg)Menstrual length (days)*Advantages/disadvantages

Olive baboonPapio anubis25–30M: 70
F: 60
M: 24
F: 14.7
30–35 [23]Advantages: anatomical and physiological closeness to humans, large size (facilitates procedures), straight cervix, readily available, non-threatened, can visually monitor cycle stage with greatest precision
Disadvantages: large size and strength, large housing requirements
African Green Monkey (Vervet, Grivet) [24, 25]Chlorocebus aethiops (formerly Cercopithecus aethiops) 11–13 (captive)M: 49
F: 42.6
M: 5.5
F: 4.1
30–32 [26]Advantages: anatomical and physiological closeness to humans, manageable size, readily available, non-threatened
Disadvantages: tortuous Cervix, cannot visually monitor cycle stage
Common marmosetCallithrix jacchus12 (wild)M: 18.8
F: 18.5
.350–.450* [27]22–28Advantages: anatomical and physiological closeness to humans, manageable size, readily available, non-threatened
Disadvantages: no menstruation (has estrus cycle) [4], small size (precludes certain procedures); ovulation pattern slightly different from humans (twinning is the normal state), cannot visually monitor cycle stage

Macaques
PigtailedMacaca nemestrina26M: 49.5–56.4
F: 46.7–56.4
M: 6.2–14.5
F: 4.7–10.9
30–40 [28]Advantages: anatomy of reproductive tract tissues and physiology of menstrual cycle similar to humans, size (facilitates most procedures), non-threatened, can visually monitor cycle stage to some degree
Disadvantages: limited availability, some species are seasonal breeders (rhesus, possibly Formosan rock macaque), tortuous cervix, aggressive temperament (rhesus), zoonotic disease risk
Formosan rock macaque (Taiwan monkey)Macaca cyclopisNA40–55*4–8*24–31
RhesusMacaca mulatta25M: 53.2
F: 46.9
M: 7.7
F: 5.34
28
CynomolgusMacaca fascicularis31M: 41–65
F: 39–50
M: 4.7–8.3
F: 2.5–5.7
28–32 [29, 30]

NA: not available. *Differences between males and females were not noted.