Table 1: Clinical characteristics of HIV-infected lactating mothers and their infants, comparing HAART-treated and untreated women.

Untreated Treated value

Maternal characteristics
 Age, years26 (23, 30)33 (29, 36)0.0002
 Peripheral CD4 count (cells/μL)a382 (217, 494)315 (257, 481)0.74
 Subclinical mastitis (milk K/Na > 1)b15 (28%)4 (25%)0.80
 Plasma HIV-1 RNA load ( )b4.0 (3.5, 4.8)2.4 (2.4, 2.4)<0.0001
 Milk HIV-1 RNA load ( )b2.1 (2.1, 3.0)2.1 (2.1, 2.1)<0.0001
 Milk CMV DNA load ( )b4.0 (3.2, 4.6)4.0 (3.2, 5.3)0.83
Infant characteristics
In utero or peripartum HIV-1 acquisition7 (13%)0 (0%)0.19
 Postpartum HIV-1 acquisition 3 (6%)0 (0%)1.00
 Congenital CMV acquisition1 (2%)2 (13%)0.13
 Low birth weight1 (2%)4 (25%)0.009
 Ballard score <37 weeks12 (23%)7 (44%)0.12

Results reported as median (IQR: interquartile range) or (%). Two-sided values for maternal characteristics derived from Wilcoxon two-sample test, normal approximation, or two-sided values for infant characteristics from Fisher’s exact test. Significant values ( ) are bolded.
aMeasured in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy.
bMeasured at four to six weeks postpartum.