Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 2015, Article ID 276851, 9 pages
Research Article

Maternal Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Use in Pregnancy and Growth Outcomes among HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants in Kenya

1Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104, USA
2Department of Nursing, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
3United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Nairobi 00202, Kenya
4Center for Microbiology Research and Center for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi 00202, Kenya
5Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi 00202, Kenya
6Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
7Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
8University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA

Received 22 October 2015; Revised 2 December 2015; Accepted 3 December 2015

Academic Editor: Faustino R. Perez-Lopez

Copyright © 2015 Jillian Pintye et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is commonly used in antiretroviral treatment (ART) and preexposure prophylaxis regimens. We evaluated the relationship of prenatal TDF use and growth outcomes among Kenyan HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants. Materials and Methods. We included PCR-confirmed HEU infants enrolled in a cross-sectional survey of mother-infant pairs conducted between July and December 2013 in Kenya. Maternal ART regimen during pregnancy was determined by self-report and clinic records. Six-week and 9-month z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ), weight-for-length (WLZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and head circumference-for-age (HCAZ) were compared among HEU infants with and without TDF exposure using t-tests and multivariate linear regression models. Results. Among 277 mothers who received ART during pregnancy, 63% initiated ART before pregnancy, of which 89 (32%) used TDF. No differences in birth weight (3.0 kg versus 3.1 kg, ) or gestational age (38 weeks versus 38 weeks, ) were detected between TDF-exposed and TDF-unexposed infants. At 6 weeks, unadjusted mean WAZ was lower among TDF-exposed infants (−0.8 versus −0.4, ), with a trend towards association in adjusted analyses (). There were no associations between prenatal TDF use and WLZ, LAZ, and HCAZ in 6-week or 9-month infant cohorts. Conclusion. Maternal TDF use did not adversely affect infant growth compared to other regimens.