Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 2016, Article ID 3086036, 19 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3086036
Review Article

Human Papillomavirus Infection as a Possible Cause of Spontaneous Abortion and Spontaneous Preterm Delivery

1Center for Clinical Research, North Denmark Regional Hospital and Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Bispensgade 37, 9800 Hjørring, Denmark
2Department of Hematology, Aalborg University Hospital, Søndre Skovvej 15, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark
3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark

Received 18 December 2015; Revised 10 March 2016; Accepted 13 March 2016

Academic Editor: Susan Cu-Uvin

Copyright © 2016 Lea Maria Margareta Ambühl et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. G. Donders, B. Van Bulck, J. Caudron, L. Londers, A. Vereecken, and B. Spitz, “Relationship of bacterial vaginosis and mycoplasmas to the risk of spontaneous abortion,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 183, no. 2, pp. 431–437, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. A. Robertson, L. H. Honore, and G. W. Stemke, “Serotypes of ureaplasma urealyticum in spontaneous abortion,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. S270–S272, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. G. Gravett, C. E. Rubens, and T. M. Nunes, “Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth (2 of 7): discovery science,” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 10, supplement 1, p. S2, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. H.-U. Bernard, R. D. Burk, Z. Chen, K. van Doorslaer, H. Z. Hausen, and E.-M. de Villiers, “Classification of papillomaviruses (PVs) based on 189 PV types and proposal of taxonomic amendments,” Virology, vol. 401, no. 1, pp. 70–79, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Doorbar, “The papillomavirus life cycle,” Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 32, supplement, pp. 7–15, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. A. Stanley, “Epithelial cell responses to infection with human papillomavirus,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 215–222, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Aggarwal, “Cervical cancer: can it be prevented?” World Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 775–780, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. Bruni, L. Barrionuevo-Rosas, G. Albero et al., Human Papillomavirus and Related Diseases in the World. Summary Report 2014, 2014.
  9. H. A. Cubie, “Diseases associated with human papillomavirus infection,” Virology, vol. 445, no. 1-2, pp. 21–34, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. D. Weinberg, “Pregnancy-associated depression of cell-mediated immunity,” Reviews of Infectious Diseases, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 814–831, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. Entrican, “Immune regulation during pregnancy and host-pathogen interactions in infectious abortion,” Journal of Comparative Pathology, vol. 126, no. 2-3, pp. 79–94, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. Huddleston and D. J. Schust, “Immune interactions at the maternal-fetal interface: a focus on antigen presentation,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 283–289, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. Worda, A. Huber, G. Hudelist et al., “Prevalence of cervical and intrauterine human papillomavirus infected in the third trimester in asymptomatic women,” Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 440–444, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. Mittal, A. Pater, and M. M. Pater, “Multiple human papillomavirus type 16 glucocorticoid response elements functional for transformation, transient expression, and DNA-protein interactions,” Journal of Virology, vol. 67, no. 9, pp. 5656–5659, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. Liu, L. Xu, Y. Sun, and Z. Wang, “The prevalence and risk of human papillomavirus infection in pregnant women,” Epidemiology & Infection, vol. 142, no. 8, pp. 1567–1578, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. C. C. Pao, J. J. Hor, C.-J. Wu, Y.-F. Shi, X. Xie, and S.-M. Lu, “Human papillomavirus type 18 DNA in gestational trophoblastic tissues and choriocarcinomas,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 505–509, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. Sikstroöm, D. Hellberg, S. Nilsson, C. Brihmer, and P.-A. Mårdh, “Contraceptive use and reproductive history in women with cervical human papillomavirus infection,” Advances in Contraception, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 273–284, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. L. Hermonat, L. Han, P. J. Wendel et al., “Human papillomavirus is more prevalent in first trimester spontaneously aborted products of conception compared to elective specimens,” Virus Genes, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 13–17, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Rabreau and J. Saurel, “Presence of human papilloma viruses in the deciduous membranes of early abortion products,” La Presse medicale, vol. 26, p. 1724, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  20. L. M. Gomez, Y. Ma, C. Ho, C. M. McGrath, D. B. Nelson, and S. Parry, “Placental infection with human papillomavirus is associated with spontaneous preterm delivery,” Human Reproduction, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 709–715, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Z. Zuo, S. Goel, and J. E. Carter, “Association of cervical cytology and HPV DNA status during pregnancy with placental abnormalities and preterm birth,” American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 136, no. 2, pp. 260–265, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. W. Eppel, C. Worda, P. Frigo, M. Ulm, E. Kucera, and K. Czerwenka, “Human papillomavirus in the cervix and placenta,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 337–341, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. S. Hahn, M. K. Kee, H. J. Kim et al., “Distribution of maternal and infant human papillomavirus: risk factors associated with vertical transmission,” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 169, no. 2, pp. 202–206, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. X. Wang, Q. Zhu, and H. Rao, “Maternal-fetal transmission of human papillomavirus,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 111, no. 8, pp. 726–727, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. Armbruster-Moraes, L. M. Ioshimoto, E. Leao, and M. Zugaib, “Detection of human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid sequences in amniotic fluid during different periods of pregnancy,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 169, no. 4, pp. 1074–1075, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. L. Rombaldi, E. P. Serafini, J. Mandelli, E. Zimmermann, and K. P. Losquiavo, “Transplacental transmission of human papillomavirus,” Virology Journal, vol. 5, article 106, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. E. Sarkola, S. E. Grénman, M. A. M. Rintala, K. J. Syrjänen, and S. M. Syrjänen, “Human papillomavirus in the placenta and umbilical cord blood,” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, vol. 87, no. 11, pp. 1181–1188, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Matovina, K. Husnjak, N. Milutin, S. Ciglar, and M. Grce, “Possible role of bacterial and viral infections in miscarriages,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 662–669, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. K. Srinivas, Y. Ma, M. D. Sammel et al., “Placental inflammation and viral infection are implicated in second trimester pregnancy loss,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 195, no. 3, pp. 797–802, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. E. M. Smith, J. M. Ritchie, J. Yankowitz et al., “Human papillomavirus prevalence and types in newborns and parents: concordance and modes of transmission,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 57–62, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. R. Medeiros, A. B. de Moraes Ethur, J. B. Hilgert et al., “Vertical transmission of the human papillomavirus: a systematic quantitative review,” Cadernos de Saúde Pública, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 1006–1015, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. C. Weyn, D. Thomas, J. Jani et al., “Evidence of human papillomavirus in the placenta,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 203, no. 3, pp. 341–343, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. Moher, A. Liberati, J. Tetzlaff, and D. G. Altman, “Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement,” BMJ, vol. 339, no. 7716, pp. 332–336, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Y. H. Kim, J. S. Park, E. R. Norwitz et al., “Genotypic prevalence of human papillomavirus infection during normal pregnancy: a cross-sectional study,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 200–207, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. G. Cho, K.-J. Min, H.-R. Hong et al., “High-risk human papillomavirus infection is associated with premature rupture of membranes,” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 13, article 173, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. Conde-Ferráez, A. D. A. Chan May, J. R. Carrillo-Martínez, G. Ayora-Talavera, and M. D. R. González-Losa, “Human papillomavirus infection and spontaneous abortion: a case-control study performed in Mexico,” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 170, no. 2, pp. 468–473, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. M. Lee, J. S. Park, E. R. Norwitz et al., “Risk of vertical transmission of human papillomavirus throughout pregnancy: a prospective study,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 6, Article ID e66368, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Skoczyński, A. Goździcka-Józefiak, and A. Kwaśniewska, “Risk factors of the vertical transmission of human papilloma virus in newborns from singleton pregnancy—preliminary report,” Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 239–242, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. Y. Hong, S.-Q. Li, Y.-L. Hu, and Z.-Q. Wang, “Survey of human papillomavirus types and their vertical transmission in pregnant women,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 13, no. 1, article 109, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. E. Schmeink, W. J. G. Melchers, J. C. M. Hendriks, W. G. V. Quint, L. F. Massuger, and R. L. M. Bekkers, “Human papillomavirus detection in pregnant women: a prospective matched cohort study,” Journal of Women's Health, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1295–1301, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. H. Park, S. W. Lee, I. H. Lee et al., “Rate of vertical transmission of human papillomavirus from mothers to infants: relationship between infection rate and mode of delivery,” Virology Journal, vol. 9, article 80, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. H.-M. Koskimaa, T. Waterboer, M. Pawlita, S. Grénman, K. Syrjänen, and S. Syrjänen, “Human papillomavirus genotypes present in the oral mucosa of newborns and their concordance with maternal cervical human papillomavirus genotypes,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 160, no. 5, pp. 837–843, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. Skoczyński, A. Goździcka-Józefiak, and A. Kwaśniewska, “Prevalence of human papillomavirus in spontaneously aborted products of conception,” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, vol. 90, no. 12, pp. 1402–1405, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. O. Uribarren-Berrueta, J. Sánchez-Corona, H. Montoya-Fuentes, B. Trujillo-Hernández, and C. Vásquez, “Presence of HPV DNA in placenta and cervix of pregnant Mexican women,” Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 285, no. 1, pp. 55–60, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. G. Domža, Ž. Gudlevičienė, J. Didžiapetrienė, K. P. Valuckas, B. Kazbarienė, and G. Drąsutienė, “Human papillomavirus infection in pregnant women,” Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 284, no. 5, pp. 1105–1112, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. K. Yamasaki, K. Miura, T. Shimada et al., “Epidemiology of human papillomavirus genotypes in pregnant Japanese women,” Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 313–315, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. B. Dinc, G. Bozdayi, A. Biri et al., “Molecular detection of cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus 2, human papillomavirus 16–18 in Turkish pregnants,” Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 569–574, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. E. M. Smith, M. A. Parker, L. M. Rubenstein, T. H. Haugen, E. Hamsikova, and L. P. Turek, “Evidence for vertical transmission of HPV from mothers to infants,” Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 2010, Article ID 326369, 7 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. M. M. Pereira, D. Etlinger, L. S. Aguiar, S. V. Peres, and A. Longatto Filho, “Simultaneous Chlamydia trachomatis and HPV infection in pregnant women,” Diagnostic Cytopathology, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 397–401, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. L. B. Freitas, C. C. Pereira, R. Checon, J. P. G. Leite, J. P. Nascimento, and L. C. Spano, “Adeno-associated virus and human papillomavirus types in cervical samples of pregnant and non-pregnant women,” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 41–44, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. X. Castellsagué, T. Drudis, M. P. Cañadas et al., “Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in pregnant women and mother-to-child transmission of genital HPV genotypes: a prospective study in Spain,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 9, article 74, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. K. Takakuwa, T. Mitsui, M. Iwashita et al., “Studies on the prevalence of human papillomavirus in pregnant women in Japan,” Journal of Perinatal Medicine, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 77–79, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. T. Ruffin IV, J. M. Bailey, D. Roulston et al., “Human papillomavirus in amniotic fluid,” BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, vol. 6, article 28, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. C. Hernández-Girón, J. S. Smith, A. Lorincz, E. Lazcano, M. Hernández-Ávila, and J. Salmerón, “High-risk human papillomavirus detection and related risk factors among pregnant and nonpregnant women in Mexico,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 613–618, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. D. Deng, L. Wen, W. Chen, and X. Ling, “Asymptomatic genital infection of human papillomavirus in pregnant women and the vertical transmission route,” Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 343–345, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. E. M. Smith, J. M. Ritchie, J. Yankowitz, D. Wang, L. P. Turek, and T. H. Haugen, “HPV prevalence and concordance in the cervix and oral cavity of pregnant women,” Infectious Disease in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 45–56, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. P. K. S. Chan, A. R. Chang, W.-H. Tam, J. L. K. Cheung, and A. F. Cheng, “Prevalence and genotype distribution of cervical human papillomavirus infection: comparison between pregnant women and non-pregnant controls,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 583–588, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. T. Burguete, M. Rabreau, M. Fontanges-Darriet et al., “Evidence for infection of the human embryo with adeno-associated virus in pregnancy,” Human Reproduction, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 2396–2401, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. P. Tenti, R. Zappatore, P. Migliora, A. Spinillo, C. Belloni, and L. Carnevali, “Perinatal transmission of human papillomavirus from gravidas with latent infections,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 475–479, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. S. Sifakis, M. Ergazaki, G. Sourvinos, M. Koffa, E. Koumantakis, and D. A. Spandidos, “Evaluation of Parvo B19, CMV and HPV viruses in human aborted material using the polymerase chain reaction technique,” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 169–173, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. C.-J. Tseng, C.-C. Liang, Y.-K. Soong, and C.-C. Pao, “Perinatal transmission of human papillomavirus in infants: relationship between infection rate and mode of delivery,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 92–96, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. O. Malhomme, N. Dutheil, M. Rabreau, E. Armbruster-Moraes, J. R. Schlehofer, and T. Dupressoir, “Human genital tissues containing DNA of adeno-associated virus lack DNA sequences of the helper viruses adenovirus, herpes simplex virus or cytomegalovirus but frequently contain human papillomavirus DNA,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 78, no. 8, pp. 1957–1962, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. P. Tenti, R. Zappatore, P. Migliora et al., “Latent human papillomavirus infection in pregnant women at term: a case- control study,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 176, no. 1, pp. 277–280, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. H. Puranen, M. H. Yliskoski, S. V. Saarikoski, K. J. Syrjanen, and S. M. Syrjanen, “Exposure of an infant to cervical human papillomavirus infection of the mother is common,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 176, no. 5, pp. 1039–1045, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. E. A. B. Morrison, M. D. Gammon, G. L. Goldberg, S. H. Vermund, and R. D. Burk, “Pregnancy and cervical infection with human papillomaviruses,” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 125–130, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. J. Chang-Claude, A. Schneider, E. Smith, M. Blettner, J. Wahrendorf, and L. Turek, “Longitudinal study of the effects of pregnancy and other factors on detection of HPV,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 355–362, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. G. L. Veress, T. Csiky-Mészáros, J. Kónya, J. Czeglédy, and L. Gergely, “Follow-up of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and local anti-HPV antibodies in cytologically normal pregnant women,” Medical Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 185, no. 3, pp. 139–144, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. K. H. Fife, B. P. Katz, J. Roush, V. D. Handy, D. R. Brown, and R. Hansell, “Cancer-associated human papillomavirus types are selectively increased in the cervix of women in the first trimester of pregnancy,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 174, no. 5, pp. 1487–1493, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. Y. Aydin, A. Atis, T. Tutuman, and N. Goker, “Prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in pregnant Turkish women compared with non-pregnant women,” European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 72–74, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. S. de Sanjosé, M. Diaz, X. Castellsagué et al., “Worldwide prevalence and genotype distribution of cervical human papillomavirus DNA in women with normal cytology: a meta-analysis,” Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 453–459, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. K. Kelley and S. H. Vermund, “Human papillomavirus in women: methodologic issues and role of immunosuppression,” in Reproductive and Perinatal Epidemiology, pp. 158–159, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  72. K. H. Fife, B. P. Katz, E. J. Brizendine, and D. R. Brown, “Cervical human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid persists throughout pregnancy and decreases in the postpartum period,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 180, no. 5, pp. 1110–1114, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. S. Sethi, M. Muller, A. Schneider et al., “Serologic response to the E4, E6, and E7 proteins of human papillomavirus type 16 in pregnant women,” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 178, no. 2, pp. 360–364, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. A. E. Nobbenhuis, T. J. M. Helmerhorst, A. J. C. Van den Brule et al., “High-risk human papillomavirus clearance in pregnant women: trends for lower clearance during pregnancy with a catch-up postpartum,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 75–80, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. A. Alanen, “Polymerase chain reaction in the detection of microbes in amniotic fluid,” Annals of Medicine, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 288–295, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. H. Koi, J. Zhang, and S. Parry, “The mechanisms of placental viral infection,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 943, pp. 148–156, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. F. Arechavaleta-Velasco, H. Koi, J. F. Strauss III, and S. Parry, “Viral infection of the trophoblast: time to take a serious look at its role in abnormal implantation and placentation?” Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 55, no. 1-2, pp. 113–121, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. W. W. Andrews, R. L. Goldenberg, and J. C. Hauth, “Preterm labor: emerging role of genital tract infections,” Infectious Agents and Disease, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 196–211, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. S. Syrjänen and M. Puranen, “Human papillomavirus infections in children: the potential role of maternal transmission,” Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 259–274, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. A. Schneider, M. Hotz, and L. Gissmann, “Increased prevalence of human papillomaviruses in the lower genital tract of pregnant women,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 198–201, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. R. F. Rando, S. Lindheim, L. Hasty, T. V. Sedlacek, M. Woodland, and C. Eder, “Increased frequency of detection of human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid in exfoliated cervical cells during pregnancy,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 161, no. 1, pp. 50–55, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. E. M. Smith, S. R. Johnson, D. Jiang et al., “The association between pregnancy and human papilloma virus prevalence,” Cancer Detection and Prevention, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 397–402, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. A. M. De Roda Husman, J. M. M. Walboomers, E. Hopman et al., “HPV prevalence in cytomorphologically normal cervical scrapes of pregnant women as determined by PCR: the age-related pattern,” Journal of Medical Virology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 97–102, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. T. Iftner and L. L. Villa, “Chapter 12: human papillomavirus technologies,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monographs, vol. 2003, no. 31, pp. 80–88, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. P. J. F. Snijders, A. J. C. van den Brule, and C. J. L. M. Meijer, “The clinical relevance of human papillomavirus testing: relationship between analytical and clinical sensitivity,” The Journal of Pathology, vol. 201, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. Y. Liu, H. You, M. Chiriva-Internati et al., “Display of complete life cycle of human papillomavirus type 16 in cultured placental trophoblasts,” Virology, vol. 290, no. 1, pp. 99–105, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. H. You, Y. Liu, N. Agrawal et al., “Infection, replication, and cytopathology of human papillomavirus type 31 in trophoblasts,” Virology, vol. 316, no. 2, pp. 281–289, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. S. Boulenouar, C. Weyn, M. van Noppen et al., “Effects of HPV-16 E5, E6 and E7 proteins on survival, adhesion, migration and invasion of trophoblastic cells,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 473–480, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus