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Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 2018, Article ID 7027683, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7027683
Research Article

Periodontal Disease, Inflammatory Cytokines, and PGE2 in Pregnant Patients at Risk of Preterm Delivery: A Pilot Study

1Centro de Investigaciones Odontológicas (CIO), Professor Graduate Program in Periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Colombia
2Centro de Investigaciones Odontológicas (CIO), Faculty of Dentistry, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia
3Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Colombia
4Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Colombia

Correspondence should be addressed to Francina Maria Escobar Arregoces; se.oohay@rabocseanicnarf

Received 2 May 2018; Accepted 27 June 2018; Published 1 August 2018

Academic Editor: Patrick Ramsey

Copyright © 2018 Catalina Latorre Uriza et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Periodontal disease is an infection that, in pregnant women, can act as a risk factor for preterm delivery by increasing local and systemic inflammatory responses. Objective. To analyze the presence of periodontal disease, proinflammatory cytokines, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in pregnant patients at high risk for preterm delivery. Materials and Methods. Pilot study for a case-control study. We included 46 pregnant patients (23 patients at risk of preterm delivery as cases and 23 patients without risk of preterm delivery as controls). We excluded patients who received periodontal treatment, antibiotics, or antimicrobials over the last 3 months as well as those with infections or diseases such as diabetes or hypercholesterolemia. The patients underwent a periodontal assessment, and their levels of cytokines (interleukin- [IL-] 2, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor- [TNF-] α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were quantified. Results. Patients with periodontal disease showed higher levels of cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α) and PGE2. Patients at high risk for preterm birth showed higher IL levels compared with patients at low risk for preterm delivery. PGE2 increased with the severity of periodontal disease. PGE2 was higher in patients at low risk for preterm delivery, although this difference was not significant. Conclusion. Periodontal disease can increase the systemic inflammatory response as well as the levels of PGE2 and inflammatory cytokines in pregnant patients.