Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Agronomy
Volume 2012, Article ID 636905, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/636905
Review Article

Microwave Technologies as Part of an Integrated Weed Management Strategy: A Review

Melbourne School of Land and Environment, University of Melbourne, Dookie Campus, Nalinga Road, Dookie, VIC 3647, Australia

Received 27 June 2011; Accepted 7 September 2011

Academic Editor: David Clay

Copyright © 2012 Graham Brodie et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. DAFF, Weeds, Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, 2006.
  2. R. J. Kremer, “Management of weed seed banks with microorganisms,” Ecological Applications, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 42–52, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. Batlla and R. L. Benech-Arnold, “Predicting changes in dormancy level in weed seed soil banks: implications for weed management,” Crop Protection, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 189–197, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. F. Bebawi, A. P. Cooper, G. I. Brodie et al., “Effect of microwave radiation on seed mortality of rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora R.Br.), parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorous L.) and bellyache bush (Jatropha gossypiifolia L.),” Plant Protection Quarterly, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 136–142, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. O. C. Burnside, R. S. Moomaw, F. W. Roeth, G. A. Wicks, and R. G. Wilson, “Weed seed demise in soil in weed-free corn (Zea mays) production across Nabraska,” Weed Science, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 248–251, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  6. I. M. Heap, “The occurrence of herbicide-resistant weeds worldwide,” Pesticide Science, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 235–243, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. Cox, “Glyphosate,” Journal of Pesticide Reform, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 10–15, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  8. I. Sartorato, G. Zanin, C. Baldoin, and C. De Zanche, “Observations on the potential of microwaves for weed control,” Weed Research, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Gourd, “Controlling weeds using propane generated flame and steam treatments in crop and non croplands,” Final Report, Organic Farming Research Foundation, Santa Cruz, Calif, USA, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  10. J. S. Vitelli and B. A. Madigan, “Evaluation of a hand-held burner for the control of woody weeds by flaming,” Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 75–81, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. Tamado, W. Schutz, and P. Milberg, “Germination ecology of the weed Parthenium hysterophorus in eastern Ethiopia,” Annals of Applied Biology, vol. 140, no. 3, pp. 263–270, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. A. Ark and W. Parry, “Application of high-frequency electrostatic fields in agriculture,” The Quarterly Review of Biology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 172–191, 1940. View at Google Scholar
  13. V. N. Tran, “Effects of microwave energy on the strophiole, seed coat and germination of acacia seeds,” Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 277–287, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  14. S. O. Nelson and L. E. Stetson, “Germination responses of selected plant species to Rf electrical seed treatment,” Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 2051–2058, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. Brodie, G. Harris, L. Pasma et al., “Microwave soil heating for controlling ryegrass seed germination,” Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 295–302, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  16. F. S. Davis, J. R. Wayland, and M. G. Merkle, “Ultrahigh-frequency electromagnetic fields for weed control: phytotoxicity and selectivity,” Science, vol. 173, no. 3996, pp. 535–537, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. F. S. Davis, J. R. Wayland, and M. G. Merkle, “Phytotoxicity of a UHF electromagnetic field,” Nature, vol. 241, no. 5387, pp. 291–292, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. W. W. Wolf, C. R. Vaughn, R. Harris, and G. M. Loper, “Insect radar cross-sections for aerial density measurements and target classification,” Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 949–954, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. V. Barker and L. E. Craker, “Inhibition of weed seed germination by microwaves,” Agronomy Journal, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 302–305, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  20. H. E. Haller, “Microwave energy applicator,” patent, 2002/0090268A1, 20020090268A1, United States, 2002.
  21. W. J. Clark and C. W. Kissell, “System and method for in situ soil sterilization, insect extermination and weed killing,” patent, 2003/0215354A1, 20030215354A1, United States, 2003.
  22. G. R. Grigorov, “Method and system for exterminating pests, weeds and pathogens,” patent, 20030037482A1, 20030037482A1, United States, 2003.
  23. S. O. Nelson, “A review and assessment of microwave energy for soil treatment to control pests,” Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 281–289, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. Brodie, C. Botta, and J. Woodworth, “Preliminary investigation into microwave soil pasteurization using wheat as a test species,” Plant Protection Quarterly, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 72–75, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. F. Diprose, F. A. Benson, and A. J. Willis, “The effect of externally applied electrostatic fields, microwave radiation and electric currents on plants and other organisms, with special reference to weed control,” The Botanical Review, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 171–223, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. Brodie, S. Hamilton, and J. Woodworth, “An assessment of microwave soil pasteurization for killing seeds and weeds,” Plant Protection Quarterly, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 143–149, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. F. C. Billari, “A log-logistic regression model for a transition rate with a starting threshold,” Population Studies, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 15–24, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Bigu-Del-Blanco, J. M. Bristow, and C. Romero-Sierra, “Effects of low level microwave radiation on germination and growth rate in corn seeds,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 1086–1088, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. Brodie, “Simultaneous heat and moisture diffusion during microwave heating of moist wood,” Applied Engineering in Agriculture, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 179–187, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. S. H. Henry, “The diffusion of moisture and heat through textiles,” Discussions of the Faraday Society, vol. 3, pp. 243–257, 1948. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Crank, The Mathematics of Diffusion, J. W. Arrowsmith, Bristol, UK, 1979.
  32. A. Rozsa, “Moisture movement in eucalypt timbers during microwave vacuum drying,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Wood Drying, P. Trabula, Ed., pp. 289–294, Slovak Republic, 1995.
  33. P. Zielonka and K. Dolowy, “Microwave drying of spruce: moisture content, temperature, and heat energy distribution,” Forest Products Journal, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 77–80, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. G. Torgovnikov and P. Vinden, “Innovative microwave technology for the timber industry,” in Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on Microwave and Radio Frequency Applications, pp. 349–356, The American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, USA, 2003.
  35. F. R. Connor, Antennas, Edward Arnold, London, UK, 1972.
  36. G. Brodie, “The influence of load geometry on temperature distribution during microwave heating,” Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 1401–1413, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  37. F. B. Salisbury and C. W. Ross, Plant Physiology, Wadsworth, Belmont, Calif, USA, 4th edition, 1992.
  38. K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 302–307, 1966. View at Google Scholar
  39. F. T. Ulaby and M. A. El-Rayes, “Microwave dielectric spectrum of vegetation—part II: dual-dispersion model,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. GE-25, no. 5, pp. 550–557, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. M. Hill and T. R. Marchant, “Modelling microwave heating,” Applied Mathematical Modelling, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 3–15, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. A. Vriezinga, “Thermal runaway and bistability in microwave heated isothermal slabs,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 1779–1783, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. C. A. Vriezinga, “Thermal runaway in microwave heated isothermal slabs, cylinders, and spheres,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 438–442, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. A. Vriezinga, “Thermal profiles and thermal runaway in microwave heated slabs,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 85, no. 7, pp. 3774–3779, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  44. C. A. Vriezinga, S. Sánchez-Pedreno, and J. Grasman, “Thermal runaway in microwave heating: a mathematical analysis,” Applied Mathematical Modelling, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1029–1038, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. I. Nelson, G. C. Wake, X. D. Chen, and E. Balakrishnan, “The multiplicity of steady-state solutions arising from microwave heating. I. Infinite biot number and small penetration depth,” The ANZIAM Journal, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 87–103, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. G. A. Harris, G. I. Brodie, B. Ozarska, and A. Taube, “Design of a microwave chamber for the purpose of drying of wood components for furniture,” Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 363–368, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  47. P. Zielonka, E. Gierlik, M. Matejak, and K. Dolowy, “The comparison of experimental and theoretical temperature distribution during microwave wood heating,” Holz als Roh—und Werkstoff, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 395–398, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. F. Isbell, The Australian Soil Classification, CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia, 2002.
  49. A. R. Von Hippel, Dielectric Materials and Applications, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1954.
  50. A. C. Metaxas and R. J. Meredith, Industrial Microwave Heating, Peter Peregrinus, London, UK, 1983.
  51. G. Brodie, L. Pasma, H. Bennett, G. Harris, and J. Woodworth, “Evaluation of microwave soil pasteurization for controlling germination of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) seeds,” Plant Protection Quarterly, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 150–154, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. V. V. Tikhonov, “Dielectric model of bound water in wet soils for microwave remote sensing,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, T. I. Stein, Ed., vol. 3, pp. 1108–1110, Singapore International Convention and Exhibition Centre, 1997.
  53. D. A. Boyarskii, V. V. Tikhonov, and N. Y. Komarova, “Modeling of dielectric constant of bound water in soil for applications of microwave remote sensing,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, vol. 35, pp. 251–269, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  54. A. Cooper and G. Brodie, “The effect of microwave radiation and soil depth on soil pH,N,P,K,SO 4 and bacterial colonies,” Plant Protection Quarterly, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 67–70, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. G. Brodie, “Microwave treatment accelerates solar timber drying,” Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 389–396, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  56. R. S. Ferriss, “Effects of microwave oven treatment on microorganisms in soil,” Phytopathology, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 121–126, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  57. V. N. Tran and A. K. Cavanagh, “Effects of microwave energy on Acacia longifolia,” Journal of Microwave Power, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 21–27, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. Z. R. Helsel, “Energy and alternatives for fertilizer and pesticide use,” in Energy in Farm Production, vol. 6, pp. 177–201, Elsevier, New York, NY, USA, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  59. K. J. Hülsbergen, B. Feil, S. Biermann, G. W. Rathke, W. D. Kalk, and W. Diepenbrock, “A method of energy balancing in crop production and its application in a long-term fertilizer trial,” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 303–321, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. G. R. Mari and J. Chengying, “Energy Analysis of various tillage and fertilizer treatments on corn production,” American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 486–497, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  61. H. R. Langner, H. Böttger, and H. Schmidt, “A special vegetation index for the weed detection in sensor based precision agriculture,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 117, no. 1–3, pp. 505–518, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. R. M. Dahlquist, T. S. Prather, and J. J. Stapleton, “Time and temperature requirements for weed seed thermal death,” Weed Science, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 619–625, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. H. T. Chuah, S. W. Kam, and Y. H. Chye, “Microwave dielectric properties of rubber and oil palm leaf samples: measurement and modelling,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 2623–2639, 1997. View at Google Scholar