Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Volume 2014, Article ID 109592, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/109592
Research Article

Flow Injection Photosensitized Chemiluminescence of Luminol with Cu(II)-Rose Bengal: Mechanistic Approach and Vitamin A and C Determination

1Department of Chemistry, University of Balochistan, Sariab Road, Quetta 87300, Pakistan
2Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan
3Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
4Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan

Received 17 September 2014; Accepted 13 December 2014; Published 28 December 2014

Academic Editor: Peter A. Tanner

Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Asgher et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. F. Combs Jr., The vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 2008.
  2. T. Theodossiou, J. S. Hothersall, E. A. Woods, K. Okkenhaug, J. Jacobson, and A. J. MacRobert, “Firefly luciferin-activated rose bengal: in vitro photodynamic therapy by intracellular chemiluminescence in transgenic NIH 3T3 cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 1818–1821, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. J. Doughty, “Rose bengal staining as an assessment of ocular surface damage and recovery in dry eye disease—a review,” Contact Lens and Anterior Eye, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 272–280, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. Wang, J.-H. Wang, Q. Liu et al., “Rose-bengal-conjugated gold nanorods for in vivo photodynamic and photothermal oral cancer therapies,” Biomaterials, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 1954–1966, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. Waseem, M. Yaqoob, and A. Nabi, “Analytical applications of flow injection chemiluminescence for the determination of pharmaceuticals—a review,” Current Pharmaceutical Analysis, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 363–395, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. Rishi, M. Asgher, M. Yaqoob, A. Waseem, and A. Nabi, “Enzymatic determination of vitamin A in pharmaceutical formulations with spectrophotometric detection,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 989–993, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Waseem, M. Yaqoob, and A. Nabi, “Photodegradation and flow-injection determination of dithiocarbamate fungicides in natural water with chemiluminescence detection,” Analytical Sciences, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 395–400, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Yaqoob, A. Waseem, L. Rishi, and A. Nabi, “Flow-injection determination of vitamin A in pharmaceutical formulations using Tris(2,2 ′-bipyridyl)Ru(II)-Ce(IV) chemiluminescence detection,” Luminescence, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 276–281, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Asgher, A. Waseem, M. Yaqoob, and A. Nabi, “Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of retinol and α-tocopherol in blood serum and pharmaceuticals,” Analytical Letters, vol. 44, no. 1–3, pp. 12–24, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Asgher, M. Yaqoob, A. Waseem, and A. Nabi, “Flow injection methods for the determination of retinol and α-tocopherol using lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence,” Luminescence, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 416–423, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. L.-H. Wang and J.-F. Wang, “Determination of retinoids in human serum, tocopherol and retinyl acetate in pharmaceuticals by RP-LC with electrochemical detection,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol. 25, no. 5-6, pp. 785–793, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Escrivá, M. J. Esteve, R. Farré, and A. Frígola, “Determination of liposoluble vitamins in cooked meals, milk and milk products by liquid chromatography,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 947, no. 2, pp. 313–318, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. W. J. Driskell, J. W. Neese, C. C. Bryant, and M. M. Bashor, “Measurement of vitamin A and vitamin E in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography,” Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications, vol. 231, no. 2, pp. 439–444, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. Chen, R. Li, L. Lin, G. Guo, and J.-M. Lin, “Determination of l-ascorbic acid in human serum by chemiluminescence based on hydrogen peroxide-sodium hydrogen carbonate-CdSe/CdS quantum dots system,” Talanta, vol. 81, no. 4-5, pp. 1688–1696, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. Cai and C. Xu, “An automated method for determination of ascorbic acid in urine by flow injection chemiluminescence coupling with on-line removal of interference,” Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 938–940, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. Chen, R. Li, L. Lin, G. Guo, and J.-M. Lin, “Determination of l-ascorbic acid in human serum by chemiluminescence based on hydrogen peroxide-sodium hydrogen carbonate-CdSe/CdS quantum dots system,” Talanta, vol. 81, no. 4-5, pp. 1688–1696, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. A. Sayed, W. S. Hassan, M. Y. El-Mammli, and A. Shalaby, “New spectrophotometric and conductometric methods for macrolide antibiotics determination in pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms using rose Bengal,” Journal of Spectroscopy, vol. 2013, Article ID 214270, 13 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. Kawasaki, N. Furusho, C. Tatebe et al., “Analysis of hexachlorobenzene in food red nos. 104 (Phloxine) and 105 (Rose Bengal) by GC-ECD,” Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 6–9, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. Parham, B. Zargar, Z. Heidari, and A. Hatamie, “Magnetic solid-phase extraction of Rose Bengal using iron oxide nanoparticles modified with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide,” Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society, vol. 8, no. 1, supplement, pp. S9–S16, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Ghasemi, A. Nikrahi, and A. Niazi, “Extraction-spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of barium and strontium by 18-Crown-6 and rose bengal using partial least squares,” Turkish Journal of Chemistry, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 669–678, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. M. kakhki, M. Nejati-Yazdinejad, and F. Kakeh, “Extraction and determination of Rose Bengal in water samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to UV-Vis spectrophotometry,” Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Rozanowska, J. Ciszewska, W. Korytowski, and T. Sarna, “Rose-bengal-photosensitized formation of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 71–77, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. C. Neckers, “Rose bengal,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, A: Chemistry, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 1–29, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. Murasecco-Suardi, E. Gassmann, A. M. Braun, and E. Oliveros, “Determination of the quantum yield of intersystem crossing of rose Bengal,” Helvetica Chimica Acta, vol. 70, no. 7, pp. 1760–1773, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. K. Gollnick and G. O. Schenck, “Mechanism and stereoselectivity of photosensitized oxygen transfer reactions,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 507–526, 1964. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. C. S. Foote, “Photosensitized oxidation and singlet oxygen: consequences in biological systems,” Free Radicals in Biology, vol. 2, pp. 85–133, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  27. G. Oster, G. K. Oster, and G. Karg, “Extremely long-lived intermediates in photochemical reactions of dyes in non-viscous media,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 66, no. 12, pp. 2514–2517, 1962. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Zakrzewski and D. C. Neckers, “Bleaching products of rose bengal under reducing conditions,” Tetrahedron, vol. 43, no. 20, pp. 4507–4512, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. M. L. Martínez, M. F. L. Denis, L. L. Piehl, E. R. de Celis, G. Y. Buldain, and V. C. Dall' Orto, “Studies on the activation of hydrogen peroxide for color removal in the presence of a new Cu(II)-polyampholyte heterogeneous catalyst,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 82, no. 3-4, pp. 273–283, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. F. A. Ibrahim, S. M. Hassan, and M. M. Hefnawy, “Spectrophotometric assay of retinol via charge-transfer complexes,” Mikrochimica Acta, vol. 103, no. 3-4, pp. 209–215, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus