International Journal of Analytical Chemistry / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Spectrophotometric Analysis of Caffeine

Table 1

Different spectrophotometric methods for the determination of caffeine.

S. numberMethodLinearity range for caffeineUV-vis spectral rangeSampleSolutionReference

1Chemometric methods for spectral investigation
(1) Inverse least square
(2) Principal component analysis
12–56 μg/mL225–285 nmPharmaceuticals
(Metamizol, acetaminophen, and caffeine)
0.1 M HCl[12]

2Simple and derivative spectrophotometry12–28 g/mL200–350 nmPharmaceuticals
(Phenylpropanolamine HCl, caffeine, and diazepam)
Water, chloroform, and petroleum ether[13]

3Derivative ratio spectra-zero crossing procedure1–5 μg/mL244.8–276.9 nmPharmaceuticals
(Paracetamol, propyphenazone, and caffeine)
0.1 M HCl[18]

4Ratio spectra spectrophotometry and chemometric methods viz, classical least squares, and inverse least squares4–40 μg/mL225–285 nmPharmaceuticals
(Chlorphenoxamine hydrochloride and caffeine)
0.1 M HCl[14]

5Multivariate calibration and N-way partial least squares (PLS)2–6 μg/mL210–300 nmPharmaceuticals
(Acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol, and caffeine)
Water[15]

6Multivariate calibration method and chemometric methods viz, partial least squares, and principle component regression .05–20 μg/mL190–300 nmPharmaceuticals
(Phenytoin, barbital, and caffeine)
Water/methanol (1 : 1, v/v)[16]

7Continuous wavelet transform and derivative transform (using Savitzky-Golay filters)2–50 μg/mL220–300Pharmaceuticals
(Paracetamol and caffeine)
0.1 M HCl[17]

8H-point standard addition method0.1–3.0 μg/mL453 nmPharmaceuticals
(Paracetamol and caffeine)
Water[24]

9Simultaneous equation method and Q-absorbance equation at isosbestic point 2–32 μg/mL200–400 nmPharmaceuticals
(Paracetamol and caffeine)
Water[19]

10 Isoabsorption assay method 200–300 nmPharmaceuticals
(Caffeine and sodium benzoate)
Water[20]

11Simultaneous equation method and absorbance ratio method 0–25 μg/mL200–400 nmPharmaceuticals
(Acetylsalicylic acid and caffeine)
0.1 N NaOH[21]

12Simultaneous equation method and absorbance ratio method1.14–2.05 μg/mL200–400 nmPharmaceuticals
(Acetylsalicylic acid and caffeine)
0.1 N HCl[22]

13Partial least squares regression, genetic algorithm coupled with PLS, and principle component-artificial neural network 1–18 μg/mL200–400 nmPharmaceuticals
(Paracetamol, ibuprofen, and caffeine)
Methanol/0.1 N HCl (3 : 1, v/v)[23]

14Simple spectrophotometric method with coupling reagent0.1–1 μg/mL500–750 nmAlkaloids (caffeine and theophylline)Water[25]

15First-derivative spectrophotometry4–40 μg/mL220–360 nmPharmaceuticals
(Chlorpheniramine maleate and caffeine)
Ethanol[26]

16Derivative spectrophotometric methods (first, second, and third-order spectra)2–10 μg/mL190–350 nmBeverages (caffeine)Water[27]

17Simple spectrophotometric method5–25 μg/mL271 nmPaullinia cupana var. sorbilis (tannins and caffeine)Sulfuric acid (2.5%)[28]

18 Simple spectrophotometric method (Solvent study)0–20 μg/mL180–400 nmTea (caffeine)Water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and methanol[34]

19UV-spectrophotometry10–60 μg/mL200–600Soft and energy drinks (caffeine)Carbon tetrachloride[35]

20Simple spectrophotometric method10–50 μg/mL200–400 nmDrugs (caffeine)Water[36]

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