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International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Volume 2017, Article ID 5178729, 16 pages
Research Article

Alkaloids Profiling of Fumaria capreolata by Analytical Platforms Based on the Hyphenation of Gas Chromatography and Liquid Chromatography with Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

1Research and Development Functional Food Centre (CIDAF), Bioregión Building, Health Science Technological Park, Avenida del Conocimiento s/n, 18016 Granada, Spain
2Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain
3CIBER-EHD, Department of Pharmacology, ibs.GRANADA, Center for Biomedical Research (CIBM), University of Granada, Avenida del Conocimiento s/n, Armilla, 18016 Granada, Spain
4Laboratoire de Biotechnologies Végétales et Ethnobotanique, Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université de Bejaia, 06000 Bejaia, Algeria

Correspondence should be addressed to María del Mar Contreras; moc.liamg@zemag.sarertnoc.ram and Antonio Segura-Carretero; se.rgu@arugesna

Received 29 April 2017; Accepted 2 July 2017; Published 28 November 2017

Academic Editor: Mohamed Abdel-Rehim

Copyright © 2017 María del Mar Contreras et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Two analytical platforms, gas chromatography (GC) coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and reversed-phase ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to diode array (DAD) and QTOF detection, were applied in order to study the alkaloid profile of Fumaria capreolata. The use of these mass analyzers enabled tentatively identifying the alkaloids by matching their accurate mass signals and suggested molecular formulae with those previously reported in libraries and databases. Moreover, the proposed structures were corroborated by studying their fragmentation pattern obtained by both platforms. In this way, 8 and 26 isoquinoline alkaloids were characterized using GC-QTOF-MS and RP-UHPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS, respectively, and they belonged to the following subclasses: protoberberine, protopine, aporphine, benzophenanthridine, spirobenzylisoquinoline, morphinandienone, and benzylisoquinoline. Moreover, the latter analytical method was selected to determine at 280 nm the concentration of protopine (9.6 ± 0.7 mg/g), a potential active compound of the extract. In conclusion, although GC-MS has been commonly used for the analysis of this type of phytochemicals, RP-UHPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS provided essential complementary information. This analytical method can be applied for the quality control of phytopharmaceuticals containing Fumaria extracts currently found in the market.