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International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Volume 2019, Article ID 7125210, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/7125210
Research Article

Assessment of Heavy and Toxic Metals in the Blood and Hair of Saudi Arabia Smokers Using Modern Analytical Techniques

1College of Pharmacy, Taif University, 888-Taif, Saudi Arabia
2Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 13759-Cairo, Egypt

Correspondence should be addressed to Hassan Arida; moc.liamtoh@ahadira

Received 14 February 2019; Revised 16 May 2019; Accepted 22 May 2019; Published 4 June 2019

Academic Editor: Anastasios S. Economou

Copyright © 2019 Majed Alrobaian and Hassan Arida. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Epidemiological studies on the heavy and toxic metal content in the human blood and hair of some smokers from Saudi Arabia were carried out by modern analytical techniques. The levels of some selected heavy and toxic metals (e.g.; Hg, Pb, Cd, As, Se, Mn, Zn, Ni, and Cr) were determined using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). Prior to the analysis, the blood and hair samples of Saudi Arabia smokers were collected, treated, and digested by microwave digestion system. The number of cigarettes per day as well as the smoking period was taken in consideration in this study. The tested elements concentrations in the investigated smoker blood and hair samples were compared with those obtained from some nonsmoking control samples. The samples were collected from the psychiatric hospital in Taif city after issuing the ethical committee license in this regard. The results obtained from this study represent a very important guide for the antismoking organizations. The assessment of some side effects of the smoking in such studies presents vital challenge for the social antismoking authorities and the stakeholder governments to attain the sustainable investment for their people.