International Journal of Analytical Chemistry https://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Application of HPTLC with Densitometry for Evaluation of the Impact of External Factors on Contents of Diphenhydramine in Its Solutions Mon, 18 Sep 2017 09:34:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/4914292/ The subject of durability of drugs is a very important problem investigated by researches. The method of accelerated aging is very often used for stability testing. It involves the influence of temperature, humidity, and light exposure. The aim of this work is estimation of contents of diphenhydramine in its standard solutions undergoing the impact of external factors, that is, temperature and UV light. The standard solutions of diphenhydramine were prepared in distilled water. The analysis of contents of compound investigated was carried out by use of HPTLC. Adsorption thin layer chromatography was performed on aluminum HPTLC plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 using mixture of ammonia, methanol, and ethyl acetate as mobile phase. The solutions investigated were exposed to UV light as well as being heated in 40°C. The contents of diphenhydramine were measured in initial solution and during experiment. The additional peaks on densitograms as well as changes in color of solution were observed as a result of exposure to UV light which can give information about new substances, degradation products of diphenhydramine, which were created during experiment. Katarzyna Bober Copyright © 2017 Katarzyna Bober. All rights reserved. Analysis of Three Compounds in Flos Farfarae by Capillary Electrophoresis with Large-Volume Sample Stacking Tue, 05 Sep 2017 07:49:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/3813879/ The aim of this study was to develop a method combining an online concentration and high-efficiency capillary electrophoresis separation to analyze and detect three compounds (rutin, hyperoside, and chlorogenic acid) in Flos Farfarae. In order to get good resolution and enrichment, several parameters such as the choice of running buffer, pH and concentration of the running buffer, organic modifier, temperature, and separation voltage were all investigated. The optimized conditions were obtained as follows: the buffer of 40 mM NaH2P04-40 mM Borax-30% v/v methanol (pH 9.0); the sample hydrodynamic injection of up to 4 s at 0.5 psi; 20 kV applied voltage. The diode-array detector was used, and the detection wavelength was 364 nm. Based on peak area, higher levels of selective and sensitive improvements in analysis were observed and about 14-, 26-, and 5-fold enrichment of rutin, hyperoside, and chlorogenic acid were achieved, respectively. This method was successfully applied to determine the three compounds in Flos Farfarae. The linear curve of peak response versus concentration was from 20 to 400 µg/ml, 16.5 to 330 µg/mL, and 25 to 500 µg/mL, respectively. The regression coefficients were 0.9998, 0.9999, and 0.9991, respectively. Hai-xia Yu, Zeng-Yan Hao, Lu Li, Ya-yun Huang, Hong-Fen Zhang, and An-jia Chen Copyright © 2017 Hai-xia Yu et al. All rights reserved. Sensitive Wavelengths Selection in Identification of Ophiopogon japonicus Based on Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Technology Sun, 27 Aug 2017 10:21:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/6018769/ Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technology has increasingly been applied as an analytical tool in fields of agricultural, food, and Traditional Chinese Medicine over the past few years. The HSI spectrum of a sample is typically achieved by a spectroradiometer at hundreds of wavelengths. In recent years, considerable effort has been made towards identifying wavelengths (variables) that contribute useful information. Wavelengths selection is a critical step in data analysis for Raman, NIRS, or HSI spectroscopy. In this study, the performances of 10 different wavelength selection methods for the discrimination of Ophiopogon japonicus of different origin were compared. The wavelength selection algorithms tested include successive projections algorithm (SPA), loading weights (LW), regression coefficients (RC), uninformative variable elimination (UVE), UVE-SPA, competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), interval partial least squares regression (iPLS), backward iPLS (BiPLS), forward iPLS (FiPLS), and genetic algorithms (GA-PLS). One linear technique (partial least squares-discriminant analysis) was established for the evaluation of identification. And a nonlinear calibration model, support vector machine (SVM), was also provided for comparison. The results indicate that wavelengths selection methods are tools to identify more concise and effective spectral data and play important roles in the multivariate analysis, which can be used for subsequent modeling analysis. Zhengyan Xia, Chu Zhang, Haiyong Weng, Pengcheng Nie, and Yong He Copyright © 2017 Zhengyan Xia et al. All rights reserved. NMR Confirmation and HPLC Quantification of Javamide-I and Javamide-II in Green Coffee Extract Products Available in the Market Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/1927983/ Javamide-I/javamide-II are phenolic amides found in coffee. Recent reports suggested that they may contain several biological activities related to human health. Therefore, there is emergent interest about their quantities in coffee-related products. Green coffee extract is a powder extract made of unroasted green coffee beans, available as a dietary supplement. However, there is little information about the amounts of javamide-I/javamide-II in green coffee extract products in the market. Therefore, in this paper, javamide-I/javamide-II were extracted from green coffee extract products and their identifications were confirmed by NMR. After that, the amounts of javamide-I/javamide-II were individually quantified from seven different green coffee extract samples using the HPLC method coupled to an electrochemical detector. The HPLC method provided accurate and reliable measurement of javamide-I/javamide-II with excellent peak resolution and low detection limit. In all seven green coffee extract samples, javamide-II was found to be between 0.28 and 2.96 mg/g, but javamide-I was detected in only five samples in the concentration levels of 0.15–0.52 mg/g, suggesting that green coffee extract products contain different amounts of javamide-I/javamide-II. In summary, javamide-I/javamide-II can be found in green coffee extract products sold in the market, but their amounts are likely to be comparatively different in between green coffee extract brands. Jae B. Park Copyright © 2017 Jae B. Park. All rights reserved. Separation Process of Fine Coals by Ultrasonic Vibration Gas-Solid Fluidized Bed Sun, 06 Aug 2017 09:01:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/4763937/ Ultrasonic vibration gas-solid fluidized bed was proposed and introduced to separate fine coals (0.5–0.125 mm fraction). Several technological methods such as XRF, XRD, XPS, and EPMA were used to study the composition of heavy products to evaluate the separation effect. Results show that the ultrasonic vibration force field strengthens the particle separation process based on density when the vibration frequency is 35 kHz and the fluidization number is 1.8. The ash difference between the light and heavy products and the recovery of combustible material obtain the maximum values of 47.30% and 89.59%, respectively. The sulfur content of the heavy product reaches the maximum value of 6.78%. Chemical state analysis of sulfur shows that organic sulfur (-C-S-), sulfate-sulfur (-SO4), and pyrite-sulfur (-S2) are confirmed in the original coal and heavy product. Organic sulfur (-C-S-) is mainly concentrated in the light product, and pyrite-sulfur (-S2) is significantly enriched in the heavy product. The element composition, phase composition, backscatter imagery, and surface distribution of elements for heavy product show concentration of high-density minerals including pyrite, quartz, and kaolinite. Some harmful elements such as F, Pb, and As are also concentrated in the heavy product. Shuai Wang, Yaqun He, Hua Wei, and Weining Xie Copyright © 2017 Shuai Wang et al. All rights reserved. Phenolics in Primula veris L. and P. elatior (L.) Hill Raw Materials Tue, 01 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/2871579/ Primula veris L. and Primula elatior (L.) Hill represent medicinal plants used for the production of herbal teas and preparations with antioxidant and expectorant activity. Flowers and roots of both species possess the same biological activity. In the presented study, raw materials of wild growing P. veris and P. elatior were compared in terms of the content and composition of phenolic compounds using a fast and simple HPLC-DAD method. The study showed that flowers of both species were rich in flavonoids. However, P. veris flowers were characterized with a distinctly higher content of isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, astragalin, and (+)-catechin, whereas P. elatior occurred to be a richer source of rutoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside. Hyperoside was found exclusively in P. elatior flowers. Phenolic glycosides (primverin and primulaverin) were identified only in the roots. Their content was about ten times higher in P. veris in comparison with P. elatior underground organs. The obtained results clearly show that both Primula species differ distinctly in terms of the content and composition of phenolic compounds. The compounds differentiating both species to the highest degree (hyperoside, in flowers, as well as primverin and primulaverin, in the roots) may be useful chemical markers in the identification and evaluation of both species. Katarzyna Bączek, Jarosław L. Przybył, Małgorzata Mirgos, Olga Kosakowska, Izabela Szymborska-Sandhu, and Zenon Węglarz Copyright © 2017 Katarzyna Bączek et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Dissolution Profile of Dapagliflozin: Development, Method Validation, and Analysis of Commercial Tablets Mon, 31 Jul 2017 07:55:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/2951529/ Dapagliflozin was the first of its class (inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporter) to be approved in Europe, USA, and Brazil. As the drug was recently approved, there is the need for research on analytical methods, including dissolution studies for the quality evaluation and assurance of tablets. The dissolution methodology was developed with apparatus II (paddle) in 900 mL of medium (simulated gastric fluid, pH 1.2), temperature set at °C, and stirring speed of 50 rpm. For the quantification, a spectrophotometric ( nm) method was developed and validated. In validation studies, the method proved to be specific and linear in the range from 0.5 to 15 μg·mL−1 (). The precision showed results with RSD values lower than 2%. The recovery of 80.72, 98.47, and 119.41% proved the accuracy of the method. Through a systematic approach by applying Factorial 23, the robustness of the method was confirmed (). The studies of commercial tablets containing 5 or 10 mg demonstrated that they could be considered similar through , , and dissolution efficiency analyses. Also, the developed method can be used for the quality evaluation of dapagliflozin tablets and can be considered as a scientific basis for future official pharmacopoeial methods. Rafaela Zielinski Cavalheiro de Meira, Aline Biggi Maciel, Fabio Seigi Murakami, Paulo Renato de Oliveira, and Larissa Sakis Bernardi Copyright © 2017 Rafaela Zielinski Cavalheiro de Meira et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Isopropyl Alcohol Concentration and Etching Time on Wet Chemical Anisotropic Etching of Low-Resistivity Crystalline Silicon Wafer Mon, 31 Jul 2017 07:26:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/7542870/ A micropyramid structure was formed on the surface of a monocrystalline silicon wafer (100) using a wet chemical anisotropic etching technique. The main objective was to evaluate the performance of the etchant based on the silicon surface reflectance. Different isopropyl alcohol (IPA) volume concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10%) and different etching times (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 min) were selected to study the total reflectance of silicon wafers. The other parameters such as NaOH concentration (12% wt.), the temperature of the solution (81.5°C), and range of stirrer speeds (400 rpm) were kept constant for all processes. The surface morphology of the wafer was analyzed by optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM images confirmed a well-uniform pyramidal structure with various average pyramid sizes ranging from 1 to 1.6 μm. A UV-Vis spectrophotometer with integrating sphere was used to obtain the total reflectivity. The textured silicon wafers show high absorbance in the visible region. The optimum texture-etching parameters were found to be 4–6% vol. IPA and 40 min at which the average total reflectance of the silicon wafer was reduced to 11.22%. Eyad Abdur-Rahman, Ibrahim Alghoraibi, and Hassan Alkurdi Copyright © 2017 Eyad Abdur-Rahman et al. All rights reserved. Hexavalent Chromium Removal from Model Water and Car Shock Absorber Factory Effluent by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Membrane Thu, 27 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/7415708/ Nanofiltration and reverse osmosis are investigated as a possible alternative to the conventional methods of Cr(VI) removal from model water and industrial effluent. The influences of feed concentration, water recovery, pH, and the coexisting anions were studied. The results have shown that retention rates of hexavalent chromium can reach 99.7% using nanofiltration membrane (NF-HL) and vary from 85 to 99.9% using reverse osmosis membrane (RO-SG) depending upon the composition of the solution and operating conditions. This work was also extended to investigate the separation of Cr(VI) from car shock absorber factory effluent. The use of these membranes is very promising for Cr(VI) water treatment and desalting industry effluent. Spiegler-Kedem model was applied to experimental results in the aim to determine phenomenological parameters, the reflection coefficient of the membrane , and the solute permeability coefficient . The convective and diffusive parts of the mass transfer were quantified with predominance of the diffusive contribution. Amine Mnif, Imen Bejaoui, Meral Mouelhi, and Béchir Hamrouni Copyright © 2017 Amine Mnif et al. All rights reserved. Effectiveness of Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Solid Phase Extraction, and Headspace Technique for Determination of Some Volatile Water-Soluble Compounds of Rose Aromatic Water Sun, 16 Jul 2017 10:33:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/4870671/ Steam distillation is used to isolate scent of rose flowers. Rose aromatic water is commonly used in European cuisine and aromatherapy besides its use in cosmetic industry for its lovely scent. In this study, three different sampling techniques, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), headspace technique (HS), and solid phase extraction (SPE), were compared for the analysis of volatile water-soluble compounds in commercial rose aromatic water. Some volatile water-soluble compounds of rose aromatic water were also analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). In any case, it was concluded that one of the solid phase extraction methods led to higher recoveries for 2-phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) in the rose aromatic water than the liquid-liquid extraction and headspace technique. Liquid-liquid extraction method provided higher recovery ratios for citronellol, nerol, and geraniol than others. Ideal linear correlation coefficient values were observed by GCMS for quantitative analysis of volatile compounds (). Optimized methods showed acceptable repeatability (RSDs < 5%) and excellent recovery (>95%). For compounds such as α-pinene, linalool, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, methyl eugenol, and eugenol, the best recovery values were obtained with LLE and SPE. Hale Seçilmiş Canbay Copyright © 2017 Hale Seçilmiş Canbay. All rights reserved. Quantification of Barbatusin and 3β-Hydroxy-3-deoxybarbatusin in Plectranthus Species by HPLC-DAD Mon, 03 Jul 2017 07:43:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/2397131/ The concentration of diterpenes barbatusin (1) and 3β-hydroxy-3-deoxybarbatusin (2) in the extracts from leaves of Plectranthus grandis, P. barbatus, P. ornatus, and P. amboinicus was evaluated by HPLC-DAD analysis on a Luna C-18 column, using isocratic mixtures of water and acetonitrile as eluents. The regression equations were obtained with good linearity (r2 > 0.99) and limit of quantifications was higher than 0.1 µg/mL. The precision (lower than 3.5%, within day) and accuracy (higher than 81.7% and lower than 107.6%) of the methods were adequate. Barbatusin (1) was detected in P. grandis (15.432 ± 2.28 mg/g) and P. barbatus (5.198 ± 3.45 mg/g) extracts, while compound 2 was detected in P. grandis (4.068 ± 3.34 mg/g), P. barbatus (0.654 ± 5.86 mg/g), P. amboinicus (0.160 ± 7.25 mg/g), and P. ornatus (0.763 ± 5.10 mg/g). The evaluated validation parameters were satisfactorily achieved, and the developed methodology represents a suitable tool for application in the quantification of barbatusin (1) and 3β-hydroxy-3-deoxybarbatusin (2) in Plectranthus species. Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos Silva, Leandro Bezerra Lima, Maria da Conceição Ferreira de Oliveira, Marcos Carlos de Mattos, and Jair Mafezoli Copyright © 2017 Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos Silva et al. All rights reserved. Geochemical Characteristics and Origins of the Crude Oil of Triassic Yanchang Formation in Southwestern Yishan Slope, Ordos Basin Sun, 02 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/6953864/ Biomarker compounds that derived from early living organisms play an important role in oil and gas geochemistry and exploration since they can record the diagenetic evolution of the parent materials of crude oil and reflect the organic geochemical characteristics of crude oil and source rocks. To offer scientific basis for oil exploration and exploitation for study area, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method is applied to study the biomarker compounds of crude oil in Southwestern Yishan Slope of Ordos Basin, through qualitatively and quantitatively analyzing separated materials. The crude oil of Yanchang Formation and the source rocks of Yan’an and Yanchang Formation were collected in order to systematically analyze the characteristics of the biomarker compounds in saturated hydrocarbon fractions and clarify the organic geochemical characteristics of crude oil. The distribution and composition of various types of hydrocarbon biomarker compounds in crude oil suggest that the parent materials of crude oil are composed of hydrobiont and terrigenous plants, and the crude oil is mature oil which is formed in the weak reducing fresh water environment. Oil source correlation results show that the crude oil of Yanchang Formation in Yishan Slope is sourced from the source rocks of Chang 7 subformation. Xiaoli Zhang, Jinxian He, Yande Zhao, Hongchen Wu, and Zeqiang Ren Copyright © 2017 Xiaoli Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Rapid Separation of Indole Glucosinolates in Roots of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa Subsp. Pekinensis) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection Tue, 13 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/5125329/ Glucosinolates are a class of sulphur-containing plant compounds with diverse biological properties. They have been found exclusively in the Brassicaceae family plants and studied exhaustively in biosynthetic and application perspectives. The aim of this current study is to present a simple and updated method to quantify indole glucosinolate content in hairy root cultures of Chinese cabbage by HPLC-DAD-UV/Vis. Method validation controls were performed and recovery experiments were assayed. The data was statically treated and compared with published works. The current method allowed a feasible identification of indole glucosinolates and it was possible to identify accurately three indole glucosinolate compounds (glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, and 1-methoxyglucobrassicin) in roots of Chinese cabbage. The method demonstrated a good linearity (), a good precision, and selectivity sensitivity. In conclusion, this protocol provides an accessible method to extract and quantify glucosinolates in plant samples. Thus, based on our results, the method is valid and can be extended to other plant or food matrices. Alfredo Aires and Rosa Carvalho Copyright © 2017 Alfredo Aires and Rosa Carvalho. All rights reserved. Validation of a Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometric Assay for Quantitative Analysis of Lenvatinib in Human Plasma Wed, 07 Jun 2017 10:18:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/2341876/ Toward conducting clinical pharmacokinetic studies of an antineoplastic agent, lenvatinib, we developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay for its quantitative analysis in human plasma. Analyte (lenvatinib) and internal standard (IS, propranolol) in the plasma were extracted by using acetonitrile and chromatographically separated by using a XTerra MS C18 column with 0.2 mL/min flow and mobile phase starting with 0.1% formic acid in water, followed by increasing percentage of acetonitrile. Detection was performed by using combined reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) with positive ion electrospray ionization. MS-MS ion transitions used were 427.602>371.000 for lenvatinib and 260.064>116.005 for IS. This study was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, range, selectivity, lower limit of quantification, recovery, and matrix effect according to the Guideline on Bioanalytical Method Validation in Pharmaceutical Development in Japan. Calibration curve was plotted by using lenvatinib concentrations ranging within 9.6–200 ng/mL, and correlation coefficients () were in excess of 0.997. Intra- and interday accuracy ranged within 95.8–108.3% with mean recoveries of 66.8% for lenvatinib, and precision was <6.7% at all quality control concentration levels. Matrix effect analysis showed extraction efficiency of 15.7% for lenvatinib. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the feasibility of this method to evaluate kinetic disposition of lenvatinib. Tomoko Ogawa-Morita, Yoshiyuki Sano, Tomoka Okano, Hirofumi Fujii, Makoto Tahara, Masakazu Yamaguchi, and Hironobu Minami Copyright © 2017 Tomoko Ogawa-Morita et al. All rights reserved. Rapid and Selective Determination of Folate Receptor α with Sensitive Resonance Rayleigh Scattering Signal Thu, 25 May 2017 08:17:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/1670812/ A rapid, simple, and novel method for folate receptor α (FRα) determination is reported here. A probe of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) modified with anti-FRα antibody was synthesized under the optimized conditions first. The antibody-modified Au NPs would aggregate when FRα was added to the probe for the specific interaction between antibody and antigen, resulting in the enhancement of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) intensity. There is a linear relationship between the change of RRS intensity () and the concentration of FRα, with the detecting range of 0.50–37.50 ng·mL−1 and the limit of determination of 0.05 ng·mL−1. The determination of FRα in serum samples was realized with the advantages of high selectivity, high sensitivity, and easy operation. Liping Wu, Yue Liu, Rong Huang, Huawen Zhao, and Weiqun Shu Copyright © 2017 Liping Wu et al. All rights reserved. Changes in Polyphenols Contents and Antioxidant Capacities of Organically and Conventionally Cultivated Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Fruits during Ripening Thu, 25 May 2017 07:16:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/2367453/ Polyphenols of fruits and vegetables form an important part of human dietary compounds. Relatively little is known about accumulation of phenolics during fruits ripening process. The goal of this work was to study the changes in antioxidant activity and in content of 30 polyphenols during ripening of tomato fruits. Five organically and conventionally grown tomato cultivars were investigated at three different ripening stages. Phenolic compounds were extracted with methanol and extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. During ripening, four different changing patterns were observed: (1) high level in green fruits with minimal changes; (2) continuous increase with maximum level in red-ripe fruits; (3) decrease; (4) increase and achieving maximum level at half-ripe stage. Similar change patterns were found for organic and conventional fruits. The accumulation patterns of phenolic compounds were similar in standard-type tomatoes but differed in several cases in cherry-type cultivar. Although contents of some polyphenols decreased during ripening, total phenolics and free radical scavenging activity increased in all studied cultivars and in case of both cultivation modes. The changes in content of phenolic compounds during ripening were greatly influenced by cultivars, but cultivation mode had only minor impact on dynamics in polyphenols contents in tomato fruits. Dea Anton, Ingrid Bender, Tanel Kaart, Mati Roasto, Marina Heinonen, Anne Luik, and Tõnu Püssa Copyright © 2017 Dea Anton et al. All rights reserved. Quantification of Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds in a New Chrysanthemum Cultivar by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Wed, 24 May 2017 09:09:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/1254721/ The flowers of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. have been used as an herbal tea and in traditional medicine, and the plant has been developed to produce horticultural cultivars of various colors and shapes. In this study, a new chrysanthemum cultivar with dark purple petals (C. morifolium cv. ARTI-Dark Chocolate; ADC) was developed by radiation-induced mutation breeding of its original cultivar with purple striped white petals (C. morifolium cv. Noble Wine, NW). The phenolic profile and antioxidant property of ADC were investigated and compared with NW and the commercially available medicinal herb, C. morifolium with yellow petals (CM), in order to find a scientific support to produce a new source of natural antioxidant. Flavonoid and phenolic acid profiles of the ethanol extracts of the three flowers were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESIMS), while antioxidant properties were evaluated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. Among the tested flowers, ADC possessed the strongest antioxidant capacity and the highest phenolic contents. Flavonoids (acacetin, apigenin, luteolin, acacetin-7-O--glucoside, apigenin-7-O--glucoside, luteolin-7-O--glucoside, and linarin) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and mixture of 1,4-, 1,5-, and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids) were identified and quantified. Ah-Reum Han, Hyo Young Kim, Yangkang So, Bomi Nam, Ik-Soo Lee, Joo-Won Nam, Yeong Deuk Jo, Sang Hoon Kim, Jin-Baek Kim, Si-Yong Kang, and Chang Hyun Jin Copyright © 2017 Ah-Reum Han et al. All rights reserved. The Adsorption of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd by Modified Ligand in a Single Component Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetic, Thermodynamic, and Desorption Studies Thu, 18 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/6150209/ In this investigation, an amino functionalized adsorbent was developed by grafting 4-aminobenzoic acid onto the backbone of cross-linked chitosan beads. The 3 sets of beads including chitosan (CX), glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan (CCX), and 4-aminobenzoic acid grafted cross-linked chitosan (FGCX) were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, and TGA. The water content and amine concentration of FGCX were determined. The effect of adsorption parameters was studied and the optimum was used for further studies. Equilibrium data was obtained from the adsorption experiment carried out at different initial concentration; the data were applied in isotherm, thermodynamics, and kinetic studies. The Langmuir and Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich (DKR) models were successful in describing the isotherm data for the considered metal ions while the Freundlich and Temkin model fit some of the considered metal ions. Pseudo-second-order and intraparticle model described the kinetic data quite well. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibb’s free energy change (), enthalpy change (), and entropy change () were calculated and the results showed that the adsorption of Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Cd ions onto FGCX is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Regeneration of the spent adsorbent was efficient for the considered metal ions. E. Igberase, P. Osifo, and A. Ofomaja Copyright © 2017 E. Igberase et al. All rights reserved. Formulation Development of High Strength Gel System and Evaluation on Profile Control Performance for High Salinity and Low Permeability Fractured Reservoir Tue, 16 May 2017 07:52:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/2319457/ For the large pores and cracks of reservoirs with low temperatures, high salinity, and low permeability, a new type of high strength gel ABP system is developed in this paper. The defects of conventional gels such as weak gel strength, no gelling, and easy dehydration are overcome under the conditions of low temperature and high salinity. The temperature and salt resistance, plugging characteristics, and EOR of the gel system are studied. Under the condition of 32°C and 29500 mg/L salinity, the ABP system formulation is for 0.3% crosslinking agent A + 0.09% coagulant B + 3500 mg/L polymer solution P. The results show that when the temperature was increased, the delayed crosslinking time of the system was shortened and the gel strength was increased. The good plugging characteristics of the ABP system were reached, and the plugging rate was greater than 99% in cores with different permeability. A good profile control performance was achieved, and the recovery rate was improved by 19.27% on the basis of water flooding. In the practical application of the gel system, the salinity of formation water and the permeability of fractures are necessary to determine the appropriate formulation. Chengli Zhang, Guodong Qu, and Guoliang Song Copyright © 2017 Chengli Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Analyses of Mineral Content and Heavy Metal of Honey Samples from South and East Region of Turkey by Using ICP-MS Thu, 11 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/6391454/ The substantial of mineral ingredients in honey may symbolize the existence of elements in the plants and soil of the vicinity wherein the honey was taken. The aim of this study was to detect the levels of 13 elements (Potassium (K), Sodium (Na), Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Chromium (Cr), Aluminum (Al), and Selenium (Se)) in unifloral and multifloral honey samples from south and east regions of Turkey. Survey of 71 honey samples from seven different herbal origins, picked up from the south and east region of Turkey, was carried out to determine their mineral contents during 2015-2016. The mineral contents were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The most abundant minerals were K, Na, and Ca ranging within 1.18–268 ppm, 0.57–13.1 ppm, and 0.77–4.5 ppm, respectively. Zn and Cu were the most abundant trace element while Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr were the lowest heavy metals in the honey samples surveyed, with regard to the concentrations of heavy metals such as Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr suggested and influence of the botanical origin of element composition. Geochemical and geographical differences are probably related to the variations of the chemical components of honey samples. Serap Kılıç Altun, Hikmet Dinç, Nilgün Paksoy, Füsun Karaçal Temamoğulları, and Mehmet Savrunlu Copyright © 2017 Serap Kılıç Altun et al. All rights reserved. Rapid Determination of Isomeric Benzoylpaeoniflorin and Benzoylalbiflorin in Rat Plasma by LC-MS/MS Method Mon, 08 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/1693464/ Benzoylpaeoniflorin (BP) is a potential therapeutic agent against oxidative stress related Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, a more rapid, selective, and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to determine BP in rat plasma distinguishing with a monoterpene isomer, benzoylalbiflorin (BA). The method showed a linear response from 1 to 1000 ng/mL (). The precision of the interday and intraday ranged from 2.03 to 12.48% and the accuracy values ranged from −8.00 to 10.33%. Each running of the method could be finished in 4 minutes. The LC-MS/MS method was validated for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, and stability and was found to be acceptable for bioanalytical application. Finally, this fully validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats following oral administration. Chuanqi Zhou and Xiaoke Wang Copyright © 2017 Chuanqi Zhou and Xiaoke Wang. All rights reserved. New Modified UPLC/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Determination of Risperidone and Its Active Metabolite 9-Hydroxyrisperidone in Plasma: Application to Dose-Dependent Pharmacokinetic Study in Sprague-Dawley Rats Wed, 03 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/1271383/ Sensitive and specific liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) assay has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of risperidone (RIS) and its active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-OH-RIS) in rat plasma using olanzapine (OLA) as internal standard (IS). Pharmacokinetics of risperidone and its active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone was compared across different doses (0.3, 1.0, and 6.0 mg/kg). Serial blood sample was collected over a time of 48 hours and analyzed for risperidone and its active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone. The pharmacokinetics parameters including , , and AUC were determined for risperidone and its active ingredient. The method was linear in the concentration range of 0.2–500 ng/mL for risperidone and 9-OH-risperidone, with coefficients of determination greater than 0.998 and lower limit of quantitation of 0.2 ng/mL. Blood levels of risperidone and its active metabolite were roughly dose-proportional. The method developed herein is simple and rapid and was successfully applied for dose-dependent pharmacokinetic study. Essam Ezzeldin, Marwa Tammam, and Nisreen F. Abo Talib Copyright © 2017 Essam Ezzeldin et al. All rights reserved. Analyses of Ferrous and Ferric State in DynabiTab Using Mössbauer Spectroscopy Sun, 09 Apr 2017 07:09:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/9321896/ Antianemic medicament ferrous gluconate, ferrous fumarate, and a Dynabi tablet with a basic iron bearing ingredient were studied with the use of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Room temperature spectra of ferrous gluconate gave clear evidence that the two phases of iron were present: ferrous (Fe2+) as a major one with a contribution at and above 91 a.u.% and ferric (Fe3+) whose contribution was found to be ~9 a.u.%. In the case of ferrous fumarate, a single phase was measured corresponding to ferrous (Fe2+) state. A Dynabi tablet consists of ferrous fumarate and ferrous fumarate. The ferric phase in ferrous gluconate is able to be reached about ~3.6 a.u.% in a tablet. Young Rang Uhm, Jae Cheong Lim, and Sang Mu Choi Copyright © 2017 Young Rang Uhm et al. All rights reserved. Simultaneous Determination of Preservatives in Dairy Products by HPLC and Chemometric Analysis Mon, 03 Apr 2017 09:18:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/3084359/ Cheese and yogurt are two kinds of nutritious dairy products that are used worldwide. The major preservatives in dairy products are sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and natamycin. The maximum permitted levels for these additives in cheese and yogurt are established according to Iranian national standards. In this study, we developed a method to detect these preservatives in dairy products by reversed phase chromatography with UV detection in 220 nm, simultaneously. This method was performed on C18 column with ammonium acetate buffer () and acetonitrile (73 : 27 v/v) as mobile phase. The method was carried out on 195 samples in 5 kinds of commercial cheeses and yogurts. The results demonstrated insufficient separation where limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) ranged from 0.326 to 0.520 mg/kg and 0.989 to 1.575 mg/kg in benzoate and sorbate, respectively. The correlation coefficient of each calibration curve was mostly higher than 0.997. All samples contained sodium benzoate in various ranges. Natamycin and sorbate were detected in a remarkable amount of samples, while, according to Iranian national standard, only sorbate is permitted to be added in processed cheeses as a preservative. In order to control the quality of dairy products, determination of preservatives is necessary. Fatemeh Zamani Mazdeh, Sima Sasanfar, Anita Chalipour, Elham Pirhadi, Ghazal Yahyapour, Armin Mohammadi, Akram Rostami, Mohsen Amini, and Mannan Hajimahmoodi Copyright © 2017 Fatemeh Zamani Mazdeh et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Cu2+ in Water Based on Histidine-Gold Labeled Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Electrochemical Sensor Mon, 20 Mar 2017 08:59:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/1727126/ Based on the strong interaction between histidine and copper ions and the signal enhancement effect of gold-labeling carbon nanotubes, an electrochemical sensor is established and used to measure copper ions in river water. In this study the results show that the concentrations of copper ion have well linear relationship with the peak current in the range of 10−11–10−7 mol/L, and the limit of detection is 10−12 mol/L. When using this method to detect copper ions in the Xiangjiang River, the test results are consistent with the atomic absorption method. This study shows that the sensor is convenient to be used in daily monitoring of copper ions in river water. Rilong Zhu, Gangqiang Zhou, Fengxia Tang, Chunyi Tong, Yeyao Wang, and Jinsheng Wang Copyright © 2017 Rilong Zhu et al. All rights reserved. GC Method Validation for the Analysis of Menthol in Suppository Pharmaceutical Dosage Form Mon, 06 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/1728414/ Menthol is widely used as a fragrance and flavor in the food and cosmetic industries. It is also used in the medical and pharmaceutical fields for its various biological effects. Gas chromatography (GC) is considered to be a sensitive method for the analysis of menthol. GC chromatographic separation was developed using capillary column (VF-624) and a flame ionization detector (FID). The method was validated as per ICH guidelines for various parameters such as precision, linearity, accuracy, solution stability, robustness, limit of detection, and quantification. The tested validation parameters were found to be within acceptable limits. The method was successfully applied for the quantification of menthol in suppositories formulations. Quality control departments and official pharmacopeias can use our developed method in the analysis of menthol in pharmaceutical dosage formulation and raw material. Murad N. Abualhasan, Abdel Naser Zaid, Nidal Jaradat, and Ayman Mousa Copyright © 2017 Murad N. Abualhasan et al. All rights reserved. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Citrullus lanatus Fruit Rind Extract Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/8108504/ The wide-scale application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in areas such as chemical sensing, nanomedicine, and electronics has led to their increased demand. Current methods of AgNPs synthesis involve the use of hazardous reagents and toxic solvents. There is a need for the development of new methods of synthesizing AgNPs that use environmentally safe reagents and solvents. This work reports a green method where silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using silver nitrate and the aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus fruit rind as the reductant and the capping agent. The optimized conditions for the AgNPs synthesis were a temperature of 80°C, pH 10, 0.001 M AgNO3, 250 g/L watermelon rind extract (WMRE), and a reactant ratio of 4 : 5 (AgNO3 to WMRE). The AgNPs were characterized by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy exhibiting a at 404 nm which was consistent with the spectra of spherical AgNPs within the wavelength range of 380–450 nm, and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) results showed a distinct oxidation peak at +291 mV while the standard reference AgNPs (20 nm diameter) oxidation peak occurred at +290 mV, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) revealed spherical shaped AgNPs. The AgNPs were found to have an average diameter of  nm. Michael Ndikau, Naumih M. Noah, Dickson M. Andala, and Eric Masika Copyright © 2017 Michael Ndikau et al. All rights reserved. Particle Morphology Analysis of Biomass Material Based on Improved Image Processing Method Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/5840690/ Particle morphology, including size and shape, is an important factor that significantly influences the physical and chemical properties of biomass material. Based on image processing technology, a method was developed to process sample images, measure particle dimensions, and analyse the particle size and shape distributions of knife-milled wheat straw, which had been preclassified into five nominal size groups using mechanical sieving approach. Considering the great variation of particle size from micrometer to millimeter, the powders greater than 250 μm were photographed by a flatbed scanner without zoom function, and the others were photographed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with high-image resolution. Actual imaging tests confirmed the excellent effect of backscattered electron (BSE) imaging mode of SEM. Particle aggregation is an important factor that affects the recognition accuracy of the image processing method. In sample preparation, the singulated arrangement and ultrasonic dispersion methods were used to separate powders into particles that were larger and smaller than the nominal size of 250 μm. In addition, an image segmentation algorithm based on particle geometrical information was proposed to recognise the finer clustered powders. Experimental results demonstrated that the improved image processing method was suitable to analyse the particle size and shape distributions of ground biomass materials and solve the size inconsistencies in sieving analysis. Zhaolin Lu, Xiaojuan Hu, and Yao Lu Copyright © 2017 Zhaolin Lu et al. All rights reserved. Identification and Quantification of Glucosinolates in Kimchi by Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/6753481/ A novel and simple method for detecting five glucosinolates (glucoalyssin, gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin, glucobrassicin, and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin) in kimchi was developed using liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The chromatographic peaks of the five glucosinolates were successfully identified by comparing their retention times, mass spectra. The mobile phase was composed of A (acetonitrile) and B (water). As for glucosinolate, the relative quantities were found through sinigrin, and five different compounds that have not been previously discovered in kimchi were observed. Monitoring was carried out on the glucosinolate in 20 kimchis distributed in markets, and this study examined the various quality and quantity compositions of the five components. The glucoalyssin content ranged from 0.00 to 7.07 μmol/g of day weight (DW), with an average content of 0.86 μmol/g of DW, whereas the gluconapin content ranged from 0.00 to 5.85 μmol/g of DW, with an average of 1.17 μmol/g of DW. The content of glucobrassicanapin varied between 0.00 and 11.87 μmol/g of DW (average = 3.03 μmol/g of DW), whereas that of glucobrassicin varied between 0.00 and 0.42 μmol/g of DW (average = 0.06 μmol/g of DW). The 4-methoxyglucobrassicin content ranged from 0.12 to 9.36 μmol/g of DW (average = 3.52 μmol/g of DW). A comparison of the contents revealed that, in most cases, the content of 4-methoxyglucobrassicin was the highest. Ho Jin Kim, Mi Jin Lee, Min Hee Jeong, and Jang Eok Kim Copyright © 2017 Ho Jin Kim et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Some Common Herbs Thu, 16 Feb 2017 11:27:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2017/3475738/ The study was designed to evaluate the phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum), mint (Mentha spicata), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), oak (Quercus), aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller), and ginger (Zingiber officinale). All extracts showed a wide range of total phenolic contents, that is, 4.96 to 98.37 mg/100 g gallic acid equivalents, and total flavonoid contents, that is, 0.41 to 17.64 mg/100 g catechin equivalents. Antioxidant activity (AA) was determined by measuring reducing power, inhibition of peroxidation using linoleic acid system, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity. Different extracts inhibited oxidation of linoleic acid by 16.6–84.2% while DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values) ranged from 17.8% to 79.1 μg/mL. Reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration ranged from 0.11 to 0.84 nm. Furthermore the extracts of these medicinal herbs in 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% acetone, and 100% water were screened for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method against selected bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Pasteurella multocida, and fungal strains, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus solani, and Alternaria alternata. The extracts show better antimicrobial activity against bacterial strains as compared to fungal strains. Results of various assays were analyzed statistically by applying appropriate statistical methods. Muhammad Abdul Qadir, Syeda Kiran Shahzadi, Asad Bashir, Adil Munir, and Shabnam Shahzad Copyright © 2017 Muhammad Abdul Qadir et al. All rights reserved.