Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Volume 2009, Article ID 638145, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2009/638145
Clinical Study

Applying New Research Criteria for Diagnosis of Early Alzheimer's Disease: Sex and Intelligence Matter

1Department of Psychiatry, Mental Health and Old Age Psychiatry, Charité Medical University, 14050 Berlin, Germany
2Department of Neurology, University of Ulm, 89081 Ulm, Germany
3Division of Mental Health & Old Age Psychiatry, University of Ulm, Ludwig-Heilmeyer Strasse 2, Ulm, 89312 Günzburg, Germany

Received 30 March 2009; Accepted 9 July 2009

Academic Editor: Ricardo Nitrini

Copyright © 2009 U. Beinhoff et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. L. Bachman, P. A. Wolf, R. Linn et al., “Prevalence of dementia and probable senile dementia of the Alzheimer type in the Framingham study,” Neurology, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 115–119, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  2. R. Brookmeyer, S. Gray, and C. Kawas, “Projections of Alzheimer's disease in the United States and the public health impact of delaying disease onset,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 88, no. 9, pp. 1337–1342, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  3. L. J. Launer, K. Andersen, M. E. Dewey et al., “Rates and risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer's disease: results from EURODEM pooled analyses. EURODEM Incidence Research Group and Work Groups. European Studies of Dementia,” Neurology, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 78–84, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  4. G. McKhann, D. Drachman, M. Folstein, R. Katzman, D. Price, and E. M. Stadlan, “Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer's disease,” Neurology, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 939–944, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  5. B. Dubois, H. H. Feldman, C. Jacova et al., “Research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: revising the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria,” Lancet Neurology, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 734–746, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  6. T. Rabinowicz, D. E. Dean, J. M.-C. Petetot, and G. M. de Courten-Myers, “Gender differences in the human cerebral cortex: more neurons in males; more processes in females,” Journal of Child Neurology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 98–107, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  7. K. P. Riley, D. A. Snowdon, and W. R. Markesbery, “Alzheimer's neurofibrillary pathology and the spectrum of cognitive function: findings from the Nun Study,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 567–577, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  8. F. A. Schmitt, D. G. Davis, D. R. Wekstein, C. D. Smith, J. W. Ashford, and W. R. Markesbery, ““Preclinical” AD revisited: neuropathology of cognitively normal older adults,” Neurology, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 370–376, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  9. D. J. Selkoe, “Alzheimer's disease is a synaptic failure,” Science, vol. 298, no. 5594, pp. 789–791, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  10. H. A. Lashuel, D. Hartley, B. M. Petre, T. Walz, and P. T. Lansbury Jr., “Neurodegenerative disease: amyloid pores from pathogenic mutations,” Nature, vol. 418, no. 6895, p. 291, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  11. Y. Stern, “What is cognitive reserve? Theory and research application of the reserve concept,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 448–460, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. G. E. Alexander, M. L. Furey, C. L. Grady et al., “Association of premorbid intellectual function with cerebral metabolism in Alzheimer's disease: implications for the cognitive reserve hypothesis,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 154, no. 2, pp. 165–172, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  13. Y. Stern, B. Gurland, T. K. Tatemichi, M. X. Tang, D. Wilder, and R. Mayeux, “Influence of education and occupation on the incidence of Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 271, no. 13, pp. 1004–1010, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. Y. Stern, S. Albert, M.-X. Tang, and W.-Y. Tsai, “Rate of memory decline in AD is related to education and occupation: cognitive reserve?” Neurology, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 1942–1947, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  15. N. Scarmeas, G. Levy, M.-X. Tang, J. Manly, and Y. Stern, “Influence of leisure activity on the incidence of Alzheimer's disease,” Neurology, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 2236–2242, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  16. N. Le Carret, S. Auriacombe, L. Letenneur, V. Bergua, J.-F. Dartigues, and C. Fabrigoule, “Influence of education on the pattern of cognitive deterioration in AD patients: the cognitive reserve hypothesis,” Brain and Cognition, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 120–126, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  17. U. Beinhoff, H. Tumani, J. Brettschneider, D. Bittner, and M. W. Riepe, “Gender-specificities in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment,” Journal of Neurology, vol. 255, no. 1, pp. 117–122, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  18. P. Alexopoulos, T. Grimmer, R. Perneczky, G. Domes, and A. Kurz, “Progression to dementia in clinical subtypes of mild cognitive impairment,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 27–34, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  19. A. Drzezga, N. Lautenschlager, H. Siebner et al., “Cerebral metabolic changes accompanying conversion of mild cognitive impairment into Alzheimer's disease: a PET follow-up study,” European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 1104–1113, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  20. A. Herlitz, L.-G. Nilsson, and L. Backman, “Gender differences in episodic memory,” Memory and Cognition, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 801–811, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  21. A. Herlitz, E. Airaksinen, and E. Nordstrom, “Sex differences in episodic memory: the impact of verbal and visuospatial ability,” Neuropsychology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 590–597, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. C. Lewin, G. Wolgers, and A. Herlitz, “Sex differences favoring women in verbal but not in visuospatial episodic memory,” Neuropsychology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 165–173, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. M. J. Aartsen, M. Martin, and D. Zimprich, “Gender differences in level and change in cognitive functioning: results from the longitudinal aging study Amsterdam,” Gerontology, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 35–38, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  24. J. E. Yonker, E. Eriksson, L.-G. Nilsson, and A. Herlitz, “Sex differences in episodic memory: minimal influence of estradiol,” Brain and Cognition, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 231–238, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. M. L. Bleecker, K. Bolla-Wison, J. Agnew, and D. A. Meyers, “Age-related sex differences in verbal memory,” Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 403–411, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  26. E. Barrett-Connor and D. Kritz-Silverstein, “Gender differences in cognitive function with age: the Rancho Bernardo study,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 159–164, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  27. J. H. Kramer, K. Yaffe, J. Lengenfelder, and D. C. Delis, “Age and gender interactions on verbal memory performance,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 97–102, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. S. B. Maitland, A. Herlitz, L. Nyberg, L. Backman, and L.-G. Nilsson, “Selective sex differences in declarative memory,” Memory and Cognition, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1160–1169, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  29. G. Grön, A. P. Wunderlich, M. Spitzer, R. Tomczak, and M. W. Riepe, “Brain activation during human navigation: gender-different neural networks as substrate of performance,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 404–408, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  30. T. D. Parsons, P. Larson, K. Kratz et al., “Sex differences in mental rotation and spatial rotation in a virtual environment,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 555–562, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. T. Fritsch, J. D. Larsen, and K. A. Smyth, “The role of adolescent IQ and gender in the use of cognitive support for remembering in aging,” Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 394–416, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  32. R. C. Petersen, R. Doody, A. Kurz et al., “Current concepts in mild cognitive impairment,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 58, no. 12, pp. 1985–1992, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  33. B. Schmand, J. H. Smit, M. I. Geerlings, and J. Lindeboom, “The effects of intelligence and education on the development of dementia. A test of the brain reserve hypothesis,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1337–1344, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. K. H. Schmidt and P. Metzler, WST—Wortschatztest, Beltz, Weinheim, Germany, 1992.
  35. M. F. Folstein, L. N. Robins, and J. E. Helzer, “The mini-mental state examination,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 40, no. 7, p. 812, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  36. G. Grön, D. Bittner, B. Schmitz, A. P. Wunderlich, and M. W. Riepe, “Subjective memory complaints: objective neural markers in patients with Alzheimer's disease and major depressive disorder,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 491–498, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  37. D. Wechsler, “Wechsler memory scale—revised manual,” San Antonio, Tex, USA, 1987.
  38. M. Vandermeeren, M. Mercken, E. Vanmechelen et al., “Detection of tau proteins in normal and Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fluid with a sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 1828–1834, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. R. Motter, C. Vigo-Pelfrey, D. Kholodenko et al., “Reduction of beta-amyloid peptide42 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 643–648, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  40. L. J. Rapport, B. N. Axelrod, M. E. Theisen, D. B. Brines, A. D. Kalechstein, and J. H. Ricker, “Relationship of IQ to verbal learning and memory: test and retest,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 655–666, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  41. J. L. Woodard, F. C. Goldstein, V. J. Roberts, and C. McGuire, “Convergent and discriminant validity of the CVLT (dementia version). California Verbal Learning Test,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 553–558, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  42. K. Blennow, H. Zetterberg, L. Minthon et al., “Longitudinal stability of CSF biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 419, no. 1, pp. 18–22, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  43. K. Blennow and H. Hampel, “CSF markers for incipient Alzheimer's disease,” Lancet Neurology, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 605–613, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. H. Arai, M. Terajima, M. Miura et al., “Tau in cerebrospinal fluid: a potential diagnostic marker in Alzheimer's disease,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 649–652, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  45. M. Riemenschneider, S. Wagenpfeil, H. Vanderstichele et al., “Phospho-tau/total tau ratio in cerebrospinal fluid discriminates Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease from other dementias,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 343–347, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  46. O. Hansson, H. Zetterberg, P. Buchhave, E. Londos, K. Blennow, and L. Minthon, “Association between CSF biomarkers and incipient Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment: a follow-up study,” Lancet Neurology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 228–234, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  47. L.-O. Wahlund and K. Blennow, “Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for disease stage and intensity in cognitively impaired patients,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 339, no. 2, pp. 99–102, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. A. M. Fagan, M. A. Mintun, R. H. Mach et al., “Inverse relation between in vivo amyloid imaging load and cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42 in humans,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 512–519, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  49. D. M. Rents, T. J. Huh, L. M. Sardinha et al., “Intelligence quotient-adjusted memory impairment is associated with abnormal single photon emission computed tomography perfusion,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 821–831, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed