International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease / 2010 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Gender-Specific Neuroimmunoendocrine Response to Treadmill Exercise in 3xTg-AD Mice

Table 1

(a) The treadmill exercise exerted beneficial effects on the sensorimotor function which were more relevant in females

M non-TgM TgSEDM TgEXEF non-TgF TgSEDF TgEXE

Body weight

Weight curve
Start of week 1 (g)
End of week 5 (g)
WAT (% versus body weight)See Figure 1

Sensorimotor function

Reflex tests
Incidence of both reflexes8/810/1010/10 8/88/88/8
Wooden rod test
Equilibrium (mean latency to fall, s)
Coordination (mean distance, cm)
Wire rod test
Equilibrium (mean latency to fall, s)
Coordination (mean distance, cm)
Wire hang test (2 trials 5 s)
Strength (mean latency to fall, s)
Coordination (mean distance, cm)
Elements of support ( )
Wire hang test (1 trial 60 s)
Strength (mean latency to fall, s)
Coordination (mean distance, cm)
Elements of support ( )

Note: non-Tg, nontransgenic mice; TgSED, 3xTgAD mice not exercised; TgEXE, 3xTg-AD mice submitted to a daily treadmill running for five weeks. The body weight, fat composition, and sensorimotor function of 3xTg-AD mice differed from that of non-Tg mice. The treadmill exercise exerted beneficial effects on the sensorimotor function which were more relevant in females. Results are the mean ± SEM, as indicated. Statistics: compared to non-Tg; compared to TgSED.
(b) BPSD-like behaviors are characteristic of 3xTg-AD mice at early stages of the disease and show an important gender component

M non-TgM TgSEDM TgEXEF non-TgF TgSEDF TgEXE

Corner test

Vertical activity (latency, s)

Open-field test

Initial movement (latency, s)
Exit of the center (latency, s)
Entrance to periphery (latency, s)
Vertical activity (latency, s)
Self-grooming (latency, s)
Total self-grooming duration (s)
Defecation boli

Dark-light box test

Latency to enter into the lit area (s)
Defecation boli

Morris water maze tasks

Place learning task
Mean speed on day 1 (cm/s)
Mean speed on day 2 (cm/s)
Mean speed on day 3 (cm/s)
Mean speed on day 4 (cm/s)
Mean speed (cm/s)
Probe trial
Annulus crossings
Cue learning task
Mean distance covered (cm)
Mean speed (cm/s)

T-maze

Performance (latency, s)

Note: non-Tg, nontransgenic mice; TgSED, 3xTgAD mice not exercised; TgEXE, 3xTg-AD mice submitted to a daily treadmill running for five weeks. The 3xTg-AD mice exhibited several behavioral changes indicative of increased neofobia, emotionality, anxiety-like behavior, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, which were mainly observed in females. The exercise did not induce major changes but showed gender-dependent effects. Results are the mean ± SEM, as indicated. Statistics: compared to non-Tg; compared to TgSED, compared to mean speed on place learning task .

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