Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease
Volume 2010, Article ID 716453, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2010/716453
Review Article

Circadian Rhythm Disturbances in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Review

Department of Neurology & Psychiatry, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63104, USA

Received 21 April 2010; Accepted 27 July 2010

Academic Editor: Ricardo Nitrini

Copyright © 2010 Dawit A. Weldemichael and George T. Grossberg. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. M. Oosterman, E. J. W. Van Someren, R. L. C. Vogels, B. Van Harten, and E. J. A. Scherder, “Fragmentation of the rest-activity rhythm correlates with age-related cognitive deficits,” Journal of Sleep Research, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 129–135, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  2. J.-M. Yu, I.-J. Tseng, R.-Y. Yuan, J.-J. Sheu, H.-C. Liu, and C.-J. Hu, “Low sleep efficiency in patients with cognitive impairment,” Acta Neurologica Taiwanica, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 91–97, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. M. Hermann and C. L. Bassetti, “Sleep-related breathing and sleep-wake disturbances in ischemic stroke,” Neurology, vol. 73, no. 16, pp. 1313–1322, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  4. P. R. Gehrman, M. Marler, J. L. Martin et al., “The relationship between dementia severity and rest/activity circadian rhythms,” Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 155–163, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  5. C. P. Pollak, D. Perlick, J. P. Linsner, J. Wenston, and F. Hsieh, “Sleep problems in the community elderly as predictors of death and nursing home placement,” Journal of Community Health, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 123–135, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Bianchetti, A. Scuratti, O. Zanetti, G. Binetti, G. B. Frisoni, E. Magni, and M. Trabucchi, “Predictors of mortality and institutionalization in Alzheimer disease patients 1 year after discharge from an Alzheimer dementia unit,” Dementia, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 108–112, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Gehrman, M. Marler, J. L. Martin, T. Shochat, J. Corey-Bloom, and S. Ancoli-Israel, “The timing of activity rhythms in patients with dementia is related to survival,” Journals of Gerontology. Series A, vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 1050–1055, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. L. Bliwise, M. L. Hughes, J. S. Carroll et al., “Mortality predicted by timing of temperature nadir in nursing home patients,” Sleep Research, vol. 24, p. 510, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  9. S. M. McCurry, R. G. Logsdon, L. Teri, and M. V. Vitiello, “Sleep disturbances in caregivers of persons with dementia: contributing factors and treatment implications,” Sleep Medicine Reviews, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 143–153, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  10. D. F. Swaab, E. Fliers, and T. S. Partiman, “The suprachiasmatic nucleus of the human brain in relation to sex, age and senile dementia,” Brain Research, vol. 342, no. 1, pp. 37–44, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. Craig, D. J. Hart, and A. P. Passmore, “Genetically increased risk of sleep disruption in Alzheimer's disease,” Sleep, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1003–1007, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. A. Yesavage, L. Friedman, and L. Friedman, “Sleep/wake disruption in Alzheimer's disease: APOE status and longitudinal course,” Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 20–24, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. P. C. Zee and P. Manthena, “The brain's master circadian clock: implications and opportunities for therapy of sleep disorders,” Sleep Medicine Reviews, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 59–70, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  14. C. H. Ko and J. S. Takahashi, “Molecular components of the mammalian circadian clock,” Human Molecular Genetics, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. R271–R277, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  15. E. Challet, “Minireview: entrainment of the suprachiasmatic clockwork in diurnal and nocturnal mammals,” Endocrinology, vol. 148, no. 12, pp. 5648–5655, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. Y. Y. Lai, T. Shalita, T. Hajnik, J.-P. Wu, J.-S. Kuo, L.-G. Chia, and J. M. Siegel, “Neurotoxic N-methyl-D-aspartate lesion of the ventral midbrain and mesopontine junction alters sleep-wake organization,” Neuroscience, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 469–483, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Arpa, C. Padrino, A. Rodríguez-Albariño, and I. De Andrés, “Centralis superior raphe, reticularis pontis nuclei, and sleep-wakefulness cycle in cats,” Journal of Sleep Research, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 263–275, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. B. Saper, J. Lu, T. C. Chou, and J. Gooley, “The hypothalamic integrator for circadian rhythms,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 152–157, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. R. Y. Moore, J. C. Speh, and R. K. Leak, “Suprachiasmatic nucleus organization,” Cell and Tissue Research, vol. 309, no. 1, pp. 89–98, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. S. J. Aton, C. S. Colwell, A. J. Harmar, J. Waschek, and E. D. Herzog, “Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide mediates circadian rhythmicity and synchrony in mammalian clock neurons,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 476–483, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. K. Uchida, N. Okamoto, K. Ohara, and Y. Morita, “Daily rhythm of serum melatonin in patients with dementia of the degenerate type,” Brain Research, vol. 717, no. 1-2, pp. 154–159, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. Dori, G. Casale, S. B. Solerte, M. Fioravanti, G. Migliorati, G. Cuzzoni, and E. Ferrari, “Chrono-neuroendocrinological aspects of physiological aging and senile dementia,” Chronobiologia, vol. 21, no. 1-2, pp. 121–126, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. Singer, R. E. Tractenberg, and R. E. Tractenberg, “A multicenter, placebo-controlled trial of melatonin for sleep disturbance in Alzheimer's disease,” Sleep, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 893–901, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. N. Prinz, P. P. Vitaliano, M. V. Vitiello et al., “Sleep, EEG and mental function changes in senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 361–370, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. F. Reynolds III, D. J. Kupfer, L. S. Taska et al., “EEG sleep in elderly depressed, demented, and healthy subjects,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 431–442, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Montplaisir, D. Petit, D. Lorrain, S. Gauthier, and T. Nielsen, “Sleep in Alzheimer's disease: further considerations on the role of brainstem and forebrain cholinergic populations in sleep-wake mechanisms,” Sleep, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 145–148, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. N. Prinz, E. R. Peskind, P. P. Vitaliano et al., “Changes in the sleep and waking EEGs of nondemented and demented elderly subjects,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 86–93, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. F. Reynolds III, D. J. Kupfer, and L. S. Taska, “EEG sleep in elderly depressed, demented, and healthy subjects,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 431–442, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  29. G. Buzsaki, R. G. Bickford, G. Ponomareff, L. J. Thal, R. Mandel, and F. H. Gage, “Nucleus basalis and thalamic control of neocortical activity in the freely moving rat,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 4007–4026, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  30. C. A. Czeisler, M. Dumont, and M. Dumont, “Association of sleep-wake habits in older people with changes in output of circadian pacemaker,” Lancet, vol. 340, no. 8825, pp. 933–936, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. J. Aschoff, “Exogenous and endogenous components in circadian rhythms,” Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, vol. 25, pp. 11–28, 1960. View at Google Scholar
  32. J. N. Mills, D. S. Minors, and J. M. Waterhouse, “The effect of sleep upon human circadian rhythms,” Chronobiologia, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 14–27, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  33. S. Ancoli-Israel, M. R. Klauber, and M. R. Klauber, “Variations in circadian rhythms of activity, sleep, and light exposure related to dementia in nursing-home patients,” Sleep, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 18–23, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  34. A. Satlin, L. Volicer, E. G. Stopa, and D. Harper, “Circadian locomotor activity and core-body temperature rhythms in Alzheimer's disease,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 765–771, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. D. L. Bliwise, “Sleep apnea, APOE4 and Alzheimer's disease 20 years and counting?” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 539–546, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. S. T. O'Keeffe, K. Gavin, and J. N. Lavan, “Iron status and restless legs syndrome in the elderly,” Age and Ageing, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 200–203, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  37. T. Shochat, J. Loredo, and S. Ancoli-Israel, “Sleep disorders in elderly,” Current Treatment Options in Neurology, vol. 3, pp. 19–36, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  38. S. K. Inouye, S. T. Bogardus Jr., P. A. Charpentier, L. Leo-Summers, D. Acampora, T. R. Holford, and L. M. Cooney Jr., “A multicomponent intervention to prevent delirium in hospitalized older patients,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 340, no. 9, pp. 669–676, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  39. D. R. Hinton, A. A. Sadun, J. C. Blanks, and C. A. Miller, “Optic-nerve degeneration in Alzheimer's disease,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 315, no. 8, pp. 485–487, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  40. W. C. Bailey, J. M. Richards Jr., B. A. Manzella, M. Brooks, R. A. Windsor, and S.-J. Soong, “Characteristics and correlates of asthma in a university clinic population,” Chest, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 821–828, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  41. S. L. Rogers, R. S. Doody, R. C. Mohs, and L. T. Friedhoff, “Donepezil improves cognition and global function in Alzheimer disease: a 15-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 158, no. 9, pp. 1021–1031, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. A. Burns, M. Rossor, and M. Rossor, “The effects of donepezil in Alzheimer's disease—results from a multinational trial,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 237–244, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. R. J. Wurtman, “Narcolepsy and the hypocretins,” Metabolism, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. S36–S39, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  44. L. F. Friedman, J. M. Zeitzer, L. Lin, D. Hoff, E. Mignot, E. R. Peskind, and J. A. Yesavage, “In Alzheimer disease, increased wake fragmentation found in those with lower hypocretin-1,” Neurology, vol. 68, no. 10, pp. 793–794, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  45. National Sleep Foundation, Sleep in America Poll, WB and A Market Research, Washington, DC, USA, 2003.
  46. S. M. McCurry, R. G. Logsdon, and R. G. Logsdon, “Characteristics of sleep disturbance in community-dwelling Alzheimer's disease patients,” Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 53–59, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. K. Meguro, M. Ueda, and M. Ueda, “Sleep disturbance in elderly patients with cognitive impairment, decreased daily activity and periventricular white matter lesions,” Sleep, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 109–114, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  48. D. L. Bliwise, J. S. Carroll, and W. C. Dement, “Predictors of observed sleep/wakefulness in residents in long-term care,” Journals of Gerontology, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. M126–M130, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  49. S. R. Allen, W. O. Seiler, H. B. Stahelin, and R. Spiegel, “Seventy-two hour polygraphic and behavioral recordings of wakefulness and sleep in a hospital geriatric unit: comparison between demented and nondemented patients,” Sleep, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 143–159, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  50. D. L. Algase, “Wandering in dementia,” Annual Review of Nursing Research, vol. 17, pp. 185–217, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  51. D. L. Bliwise, “What is sundowning?” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 1009–1011, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  52. D. L. Bliwise, “Sleep in normal aging and dementia,” Sleep, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 40–81, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  53. D. Martino-Saltzman, B. B. Blasch, R. D. Morris, and L. W. McNeal, “Travel behavior of nursing home residents perceived as wanderers and nonwanderers,” Gerontologist, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 666–672, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  54. L. D. Burgio, K. Scilley, J. M. Hardin, J. Janosky, P. Bonino, S. C. Slater, and R. Engberg, “Studying disruptive vocalization and contextual factors in the nursing home using computer-assisted real-time observation,” Journals of Gerontology, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. P230–P239, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  55. P. A. O'Leary, W. E. Haley, and P. B. Paul, “Behavioral assessment in Alzheimer's disease: use of a 24-hr log,” Psychology and Aging, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 139–143, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. J. Martin, M. Marler, T. Shochat, and S. Ancoli-Israel, “Circadian rhythms of agitation in institutionalized patients with Alzheimer's disease,” Chronobiology International, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 405–418, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. M. H. Kryger, T. Roth, and W. C. Dement, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 3rd edition, 2000.
  58. F. W. Myron and M. L. Anne, Textbook of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias, vol. 8, American Psychiatric, 2009.
  59. S.-B. Yeh, P.-Y. Yeh, and C. H. Schenck, “Rivastigmine-induced REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in a 88-year-old man with Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 192–195, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  60. J. G. Ouslander, B. R. Connell, D. L. Bliwise, Y. Endeshaw, P. Griffiths, and J. F. Schnelle, “A nonpharmacological intervention to improve sleep in nursing home patients: results of a controlled clinical trial,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 38–47, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  61. F. Provini, G. Plazzi, P. Tinuper, S. Vandi, E. Lugaresi, and P. Montagna, “Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a clinical and polygraphic overview of 100 consecutive cases,” Brain, vol. 122, no. 6, pp. 1017–1031, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. S.-B. Yeh, P.-Y. Yeh, and C. H. Schenck, “Rivastigmine-induced REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in a 88-year-old man with Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 192–195, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. C. Marini and R. Guerrini, “The role of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in sleep-related epilepsy,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 74, no. 8, pp. 1308–1314, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  64. F. Provini, G. Plazzi, P. Montagna, and E. Lugaresi, “The wide clinical spectrum of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy,” Sleep Medicine Reviews, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 375–386, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  65. B. F. Boeve, M. H. Silber, and T. J. Ferman, “Current management of sleep disturbances in dementia,” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 169–177, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. S. S. Carvalho-Bos, R. F. Riemersma-van Der Lek, J. Waterhouse, T. Reilly, and E. J. W. Van Someren, “Strong association of the rest-activity rhythm with well-being in demented elderly women,” American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 92–100, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  67. S. S. Campbell, D. F. Kripke, J. C. Gillin, and J. C. Hrubovcak, “Exposure to light in healthy elderly subjects and Alzheimer's patients,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 141–144, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  68. S. Ancoli-Israel, J. L. Martin, D. F. Kripke, M. Marler, and M. R. Klauber, “Effect of light treatment on sleep and circadian rhythms in demented nursing home patients,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 282–289, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. S. M. McCurry, L. E. Gibbons, R. G. Logsdon, M. V. Vitiello, and L. Teri, “Nighttime insomnia treatment and education for Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, controlled trial,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 793–802, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  70. J. K. Gammack, “Light therapy for insomnia in older adults,” Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 139–149, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  71. A. Fetveit and B. Bjorvatn, “Bright-light treatment reduces actigraphic-measured daytime sleep in nursing home patients with dementia: a pilot study,” American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 420–423, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  72. J. G. Ouslander, B. R. Connell, D. L. Bliwise, Y. Endeshaw, P. Griffiths, and J. F. Schnelle, “A nonpharmacological intervention to improve sleep in nursing home patients: results of a controlled clinical trial,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 38–47, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  73. K. Mishima, M. Okawa, Y. Hishikawa, S. Hozumi, H. Hori, and K. Takahashi, “Morning bright light therapy for sleep and behavior disorders in elderly patients with dementia,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  74. S. Ancoli-Israel, P. Gehrman, J. L. Martin, T. Shochat, M. Marler, J. Corey-Bloom, and L. Levi, “Increased light exposure consolidates sleep and strengthens circadian rhythms in severe Alzheimer's disease patients,” Behavioral Sleep Medicine, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 22–36, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  75. S. Ancoli-Israel, J. L. Martin, and J. L. Martin, “Effect of light on agitation in institutionalized patients with severe Alzheimer disease,” American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 194–203, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. S. Ancoli-Israel, D. W. Jones, M. A. Hanger et al., “Sleep in the nursing home,” in Sleep and Respiration in Aging Adults, pp. 77–84, Elsevier, New York, NY, USA, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  77. R. F. Riemersma-van Der Lek, D. F. Swaab, J. Twisk, E. M. Hol, W. J. G. Hoogendijk, and E. J. W. Van Someren, “Effect of bright light and melatonin on cognitive and noncognitive function in elderly residents of group care facilities: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 299, no. 22, pp. 2642–2655, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  78. K. Asayama, H. Yamadera, T. Ito, H. Suzuki, Y. Kudo, and S. Endo, “Double blind study of melatonin effects on the sleep-wake rhythm, cognitive and non-cognitive functions in Alzheimer type dementia,” Journal of Nippon Medical School, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 334–341, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  79. C. G. Lyketsos, L. L. Veiel, A. Baker, and C. Steele, “A randomized, controlled trial of bright light therapy for agitated behaviors in dementia patients residing in long-term care,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 520–525, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  80. E. J. W. Van Someren, A. Kessler, M. Mirmiran, and D. F. Swaab, “Indirect bright light improves circadian rest-activity rhythm disturbances in demented patients,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 955–963, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  81. A. Fetveit and B. Bjorvatn, “Bright-light treatment reduces actigraphic-measured daytime sleep in nursing home patients with dementia: a pilot study,” American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 420–423, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  82. B. Naegele, J.-L. Pepin, P. Levy, C. Bonnet, J. Pellat, and C. Feuerstein, “Cognitive executive dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) after CPAP treatment,” Sleep, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 392–397, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  83. H. M. Engleman, S. E. Martin, I. J. Deary, and N. J. Douglas, “Effect of continuous positive airway pressure treatment on daytime function in sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome,” Lancet, vol. 343, no. 8897, pp. 572–575, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. M. Valencia-Flores, D. L. Bliwise, C. Guilleminault, R. Cilveti, and A. Clerk, “Cognitive function in patients with sleep apnea after acute nocturnal nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment: sleepiness and hypoxemia effects,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 197–210, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  85. J. S. Street, W. S. Clark, and W. S. Clark, “Olanzapine treatment of psychotic and behavioral symptoms in patients with Alzheimer disease in nursing care facilities: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 968–976, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  86. D. Q. McManus, L. A. Arvanitis, and B. B. Kowalcyk, “Quetiapine, a novel antipsychotic: experience in elderly patients with psychotic disorders,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 292–298, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  87. I. R. Katz, D. V. Jeste, J. E. Mintzer, C. Clyde, J. Napolitano, and M. Brecher, “Comparison of risperidone and placebo for psychosis and behavioral disturbances associated with dementia: a randomized, double-blind trial,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 107–115, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  88. S. M. Stahl, J. S. Markowitz, E. M. Gutterman, and G. Papadopoulos, “Co-use of donepezil and hypnotics among Alzheimer's disease patients living in the community,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 466–472, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  89. L. E. Maclean, C. C. Collins, and E. J. Byrne, “Dementia with Lewy bodies treated with rivastigmine: effects on cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and sleep,” International Psychogeriatrics, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 277–288, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  90. M. Schredl, B. Weber, M.-L. Leins, and I. Heuser, “Donepezil-induced REM sleep augmentation enhances memory performance in elderly, healthy persons,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 353–361, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  91. E. Holsboer-Trachsler, M. Hatzinger, and M. Hatzinger, “Effects of the novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitor SDZ ENA 713 on sleep in man,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 87–92, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  92. G. A. Yorston and R. Gray, “Hypnopompic hallucinations with donepezil,” Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 303–304, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  93. J. S. Ross and J. R. Shua-Haim, “Aricept-induced nightmares in Alzheimer's disease: 2 case reports,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 119–120, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  94. G. T. Grossberg, V. Pejović, M. L. Miller, and S. M. Graham, “Memantine therapy of behavioral symptoms in community-dwelling patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 164–172, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  95. D. Kunz and F. Bes, “Melatonin as a therapy in REM sleep behavior disorder patients: an open-labeled pilot study on the possible influence of melatonin on REM-sleep regulation,” Movement Disorders, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 507–511, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. B. F. Boeve, M. H. Silber, and T. J. Ferman, “Melatonin for treatment of REM sleep behavior disorder in neurologic disorders: results in 14 patients,” Sleep Medicine, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 281–284, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  97. M. L. Fantini, J.-F. Gagnon, D. Filipini, and J. Montplaisir, “The effects of pramipexole in REM sleep behavior disorder,” Neurology, vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 1418–1420, 2003. View at Google Scholar